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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • ATLAS Run 1 searches for direct pair production of third-generation squarks at the Large Hadron Collider.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 75:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reviews and extends searches for the direct pair production of the scalar supersymmetric partners of the top and bottom quarks in proton-proton collisions collected by the ATLAS collaboration during the LHC Run 1. Most of the analyses use 20 [Formula: see text] of collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text] TeV, although in some case an additional [Formula: see text] of collision data at [Formula: see text] TeV are used. New analyses are introduced to improve the sensitivity to specific regions of the model parameter space. Since no evidence of third-generation squarks is found, exclusion limits are derived by combining several analyses and are presented in both a simplified model framework, assuming simple decay chains, as well as within the context of more elaborate phenomenological supersymmetric models.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on new phenomena via Higgs boson couplings and invisible decays with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - : Springer. - 1029-8479 .- 1126-6708. ; :11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the Higgs boson couplings and mass, and searched for invisible Higgs boson decays, using multiple production and decay channels with up to 4.7 fb(-1) of pp collision data at root S = 7 TeV and 20.3 fb(-1) at root s = 8 TeV. In the current study, the measured production and decay rates of the observed Higgs boson in the gamma gamma, ZZ, WW, Z gamma, bb, tau tau, and mu mu decay channels, along with results from the associated production of a Higgs boson with a top-quark pair, are used to probe the scaling of the couplings with mass. Limits are set on parameters in extensions of the Standard Model including a composite Higgs boson, an additional electroweak singlet, and two-Higgs-doublet models. Together with the measured mass of the scalar Higgs boson in the gamma gamma and ZZ decay modes, a lower limit is set on the pseudoscalar Higgs boson mass of m(A) > 370 GeV in the "hMSSM" simplified Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Results from direct searches for heavy Higgs bosons are also interpreted in the hMSSM. Direct searches for invisible Higgs boson decays in the vector-boson fusion and associated production of a Higgs boson with W/Z (Z -> ll, W/Z -> jj) modes are statistically combined to set an upper limit on the Higgs boson invisible branching ratio of 0.25. The use of the measured visible decay rates in a more general coupling fit improves the upper limit to 0.23, constraining a Higgs portal model of dark matter.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the Ratio of b-Quark Fragmentation Fractions f_{s}/f_{d} in pp Collisions at sqrt[s]=7 TeV with the ATLAS Detector.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With an integrated luminosity of 2.47 fb^{-1} recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, the exclusive decays B_{s}^{0}→J/ψϕ and B_{d}^{0}→J/ψK^{*0} of B mesons produced in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=7 TeV are used to determine the ratio of fragmentation fractions f_{s}/f_{d}. From the observed B_{s}^{0}→J/ψϕ and B_{d}^{0}→J/ψK^{*0} yields, the quantity (f_{s}/f_{d})[B(B_{s}^{0}→J/ψϕ)/B(B_{d}^{0}→J/ψK^{*0})] is measured to be 0.199±0.004(stat)±0.008(syst). Using a recent theory prediction for [B(B_{s}^{0}→J/ψϕ)/B(B_{d}^{0}→J/ψK^{*0})] yields (f_{s}/f_{d})=0.240±0.004(stat)±0.010(syst)±0.017(th). This result is based on a new approach that provides a significant improvement of the world average.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of colour flow with the jet pull angle in t(t)over-bar events using the ATLAS detector at root s=8 TeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 750, s. 475-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The distribution and orientation of energy inside jets is predicted to be an experimental handle on colour connections between the hard-scatter quarks and gluons initiating the jets. This Letter presents a measurement of the distribution of one such variable, the jet pull angle. The pull angle is measured for jets produced in t (t) over bar events with one W boson decaying leptonically and the other decaying to jets using 20.3 fb(-1) of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 8 TeV at the LHC. The jet pull angle distribution is corrected for detector resolution and acceptance effects and is compared to various models. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of exclusive gamma gamma -> l(+)l(-) production in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 749, s. 242-261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter reports a measurement of the exclusive gamma gamma -> l(+)l(-) (l = e, mu) cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). For the electron or muon pairs satisfying exclusive selection criteria, a fit to the dilepton acoplanarity distribution is used to extract the fiducial cross-sections. The cross-section in the electron channel is determined to be sigma(excl)(gamma gamma -> e+e-) = 0.428 +/- 0.035 (stat.) +/- 0.018 (syst.) pbfor a phase-space region with invariant mass of the electron pairs greater than 24GeV, in which both electrons have transverse momentum p(T) > 12 GeV and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2.4. For muon pairs with invariant mass greater than 20GeV, muon transverse momentum pT> 10 GeV and pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2.4, the cross-section is determined to be sigma(excl)(gamma gamma -> mu+mu-) = 0.628 +/- 0.032(stat.) +/- 0.021 (syst.) pb. When proton absorptive effects due to the finite size of the proton are taken into account in the theory calculation, the measured cross-sections are found to be consistent with the theory prediction. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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