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Sökning: WFRF:(Ljung Aust Mikael 1973)

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  • Fagerlind, H., et al. (författare)
  • Development of an In-depth European Accident Causation Database and the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method, DREAM 3.0
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 3rd International Conference ESAR (Expert Symposium on Accident Research). - Hannover, Tyskland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The SafetyNet project was formulated in part to address the need for safety oriented European road accident data. One of the main tasks included within the project was the development of a methodology for better understanding of accident causation together with the development of an associated database involving data obtained from on-scene or “nearly on-scene” accident investigations. Information from these investigations was complemented by data from follow-up interviews with crash participants to determine critical events and contributory factors to the accident occurrence. A method for classification of accident contributing factors, known as DREAM 3.0, was developed and tested in conjunction with the SafetyNet activities. Collection of data and case analysis for some 1 000 individual crashes have recently been completed and inserted into the database and therefore aggregation analyses of the data are now being undertaken. This paper describes the methodology development, an overview of the database and the initial aggregation analyses.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Close Calls on the Road: A Study of Drivers' Near-Misses
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: 3rd International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Psychology (ICTTP), Nottingham, UK.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Joining a long standing tradition in the field of industrial accident prevention, traffic accident researchhas begun to extend the study of accidents and serious incidents to include also near-misses and unsafeconditions. As part of a Swedish project called FICA (Factors Influencing the Causation of Incidents andAccidents), a study has been conducted to investigate near-misses, with the aim of clarifying different typesand frequencies, as well as possible causes at the blunt and sharp end. The near-miss study made use of ananalysis method called Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method. The purpose of the method is touncover the main socio-technical (MTO) factors involved in scenarios leading to traffic accidents. The studyresulted in valuable understanding of near-misses in traffic and their aetiology, suggestions forimprovements of the analysis method, and a basis for further, more extensive, near-miss studies.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • MTO Factors Contributing to Road Accidents at Intersections
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the CSEPC 2004 International Conference on Cognitive Systems Engineering Approaches to Process Control, Sendai, Japan.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • At present, work in road traffic safety is expanding from injury prevention to include also accident prevention. For accident preventive measures to be effective, knowledge is needed about common causal factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents. This paper aims towards identification of such common factors for a specific subset of all road accidents, namely intersection accidents. The data used for the study consists of in-depth investigation material from sixteen intersection accidents that have been investigated by a multi-disciplinary accident investigation team. Data analysis was performed using DREAM, a MTO based accident investigation method. The results indicate that cognitive bias, hidden information, inadequate design of traffic environment, and competing task are common contributing factors of intersection accidents. Also, the distribution of factors for different collision path scenarios was studied, and several patterns in the distribution were discovered. These patterns were then compared to the results of another study with a similar aim, but based on database statistics rather that in-depth data. The conclusion of the comparison is that the DREAM method, in combination with in-depth accident data, provides a deeper and more detailed insight into how and why different factors contribute to accidents, and these insights are well suited for accident preventive work.
  • Engström, Johan A Skifs, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive behavior in the simulator: Implications for active safety system evaluation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Handbook of Driving Simulation for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology. - 9781420061017 ; , s. 41-1-41-16-
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Problem. Driving is, most of the time, a self-paced task where drivers proactively control the driving situation, based on their expectations of how things will develop in the near future. Crashes are typically associated with unexpected events where this type of proactive adaptation failed in one way or another. These types of scenarios are the main targets for active safety systems. In evaluation studies, drivers’ responses to expected events may be qualitatively different from responses to similar, but unexpected, events. Hence, creating artificial active safety evaluation scenarios that truly represent the targeted real-world scenarios is a difficult challenge. Role of Driving Simulators. Driving simulators offer great possibilities to test active safety systems with real drivers in specific target scenarios under tight experimental control. However, in simulator studies, experimental control generally has to be traded against realism. The objective of this chapter is to address some key problems related to driver expectancy and associated adaptive behavior in the context of simulator-based active safety system evaluation. Key Results of Driving Simulator Studies. The chapter briefly reviews common types of adaptive driver strategies found in the literature and proposes a general conceptual framework for describing adaptive driver behavior. Based on this framework, some key challenges in dealing with these types of issues in simulator studies are identified and potential solutions discussed. Scenarios and Dependent Variables. Key variables representing adaptive driver behavior include the selection of speed, headway, and lane position as well as the allocation of attention and effort. It will never be possible to create artificial simulator scenarios for active safety evaluation that perfectly match their real-world counterparts, but there are several means that could be used to reduce the discrepancy. Problems with expectancy and resulting adaptive behavior may at least be partly overcome by various means to “trick” drivers into critical situations, several of which are addressed in the chapter. Platform Specificity and Equipment Limitations. The issues discussed in this chapter should apply across all types of driving simulator platforms. However, some of the proposed methods for tricking drivers into critical situations may require specific simulator features, such as a motion base.
  • Engström, Johan A Skifs, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of working memory load and repeated scenario exposure on emergency braking performance
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Factors. - 1547-8181 .- 0018-7208. ; 52:5, s. 551-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of working memory load on drivers' responses to a suddenly braking lead vehicle and whether this effect (if any) is moderated by repeated scenario exposure. Background: Several experimental studies have found delayed braking responses to lead vehicle braking events during concurrent performance of nonvisual, working memory-loading tasks, such as hands-free phone conversation. However, the common use of repeated, and hence somewhat expected, braking events may undermine the generalizability of these results to naturalistic, unexpected, emergency braking scenarios. Method: A critical lead vehicle braking scenario was implemented in a fixed-based simulator. The effects of working memory load and repeated scenario exposure on braking performance were examined. Results: Brake response time was decomposed into accelerator pedal release time and accelerator-to-brake pedal movement time. Accelerator pedal release times were strongly reduced with repeated scenario exposure and were delayed by working memory load with a small but significant amount (178 ms). The two factors did not interact. There were no effects on accelerator-to-brake pedal movement time. Conclusion:The results suggest that effects of working memory load on response performance obtained from repeated critical lead vehicle braking scenarios may be validly generalized to real world unexpected events. Application: The results have important implications for the interpretation of braking performance in experimental settings, in particular in the context of safety-related evaluation of in-vehicle information and communication technologies. © 2010, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
  • Kircher, Katja, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Secondary Task Workload Test Bench – 2TB : final report
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main aim of this study was to investigate a selection of commonly used performance indicators (PIs) that have been reported to be sensitive to distraction and workload. More specifically, the PIs were tested for their ability to differentiate between task modalities (visual, cognitive and haptic) and task difficulty (easy, medium and hard). It was investigated whether possible differences were constant across two traffic situations (with/without lead vehicle) and two driving simulators. The experiment was conducted in the VTI Driving Simulator III, an advanced moving-base simulator, and in the Volvo Car Corporation driving simulator, an advanced fixed-base simulator. Both simulators were equipped with Smart Eye Pro eye tracking systems. A visual, a cognitive and a haptic secondary task were chosen to test the ability of the PIs to distinguish between the tasks’ loading on different modalities. Some of the main results from the study were:There were only minor differences between the two simulators for driving behaviour as described by longitudinal PIs. There was no overall offset, and the main difference was that the visual task led to stronger speed reductions in the moving-base simulator, which influenced both the mean speed and the speeding index.Regarding lateral PIs, major differences between the two simulators were found, both as a general offset and for those factor combinations that include modality and task difficulty level.With the visual or the haptic task active, the drivers positioned themselves further to the left and the variation in lateral position was higher in the fixed-base simulator.The number of lane crossings did not differ considerably between the simulators, but the lane departure area was larger on average in the fixed-base simulator, again influenced by modality, with the largest lane departure areas for the visual task, and in the case of the fixed-base simulator for the haptic task as well.Most of the eye movement related PIs had a general offset between the simulators. The drivers in the fixed-base simulator accumulated more time with their eyes off the road, especially during the visual and the cognitive tasks, while the drivers in the moving-base simulator cast longer single glances at the display.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • A conceptual framework for requirement specification and evaluation of active safety functions
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. - 1464-536X .- 1463-922X. ; 12:1, s. 44-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Active safety functions intended to prevent vehicle crashes are becoming increasingly prominent in traffic safety. Successful evaluation of their effects needs to be based on a conceptual framework, i.e. agreed-upon concepts and principles for defining evaluation scenarios, performance metrics and pass/fail criteria. The aim of this paper is to suggest some initial ideas toward such a conceptual framework for active safety function evaluation, based on a central concept termed 'situational control'. Situational control represents the degree of control jointly exerted by a driver and a vehicle over the development of specific traffic situations. The proposed framework is intended to be applicable to the whole evaluation process, from 'translation' of accident data into evaluation scenarios and definition of evaluation hypotheses, to selection of performance metrics and criteria. It is also meant to be generic, i.e. applicable to driving simulator and test track experiments as well as field operational tests.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of forward collision warning and repeated event exposure on emergency braking
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. - 1369-8478. ; 18, s. 34-46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many experimental studies use repeated lead vehicle braking events to study the effects of forward collision warning (FCW) systems. It can, however, be argued that the use of repeated events induce expectancies and anticipatory behaviour that may undermine validity in terms of generalisability to real-world, naturalistic, emergency braking events. The main objective of the present study was to examine to what extent the effect of FCW on response performance is moderated by repeated exposure to a critical lead vehicle braking event. A further objective was to examine if these effects depended on event criticality, here defined as the available time headway when the lead vehicle starts to brake. A critical lead vehicle braking event was implemented in a moving-base simulator. The effects of FCW, repeated event exposure and initial time headway on driver response times and safety margins were examined. The results showed that the effect of FCW depended strongly on both repeated exposure and initial time headway. In particular, no effects of FCW were found for the first exposure, while strong effects occurred when the scenario was repeated. This was interpreted in terms of a switch from closed-loop responses triggered reactively by the situation, towards an open-loop strategy where subjects with FCW responded proactively directly to the warning. It was also found that initial time headway strongly determined response times in closed-loop conditions but not in open-loop conditions. These results raise a number of methodological issues pertaining to the design of experimental studies with the aim of evaluating the effects of active safety systems. In particular, the implementation of scenario exposure and criticality must be carefully considered.
  • Ljung Aust, Mikael, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Manual for DREAM version 3.2
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) is based on the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM; Hollnagel, 1998). CREAM was developed to analyse accidents within process control domains such as nuclear power plants and train operation, and DREAM is an adaptation of CREAM to suit the road traffic domain. The purpose of DREAM is to make it possible to systematically classify and store accident and incident causation information. This means that DREAM, like all other methods for accident/incident analysis, is not a provider but an organiser of explanations. For any of the contributing factor categories available in DREAM to be used, it must be supported by relevant empirical information. DREAM in itself cannot tell us why accidents happen (if it could, we would need neither on-scene investigations nor interviews).DREAM includes three main components: an accident model, a classification scheme and a detailed procedure description which step by step goes through what needs to be done in order to perform a DREAM analysis on an investigated accident/incident. Below, the accident model will be given more detailed descriptions. After this follows a description of the classification scheme, and then comes the analysis process, including example cases and recommendations for how to do the categorisation in certain typical scenarios.
  • Nilsson, Emma, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of cognitive load on response time in an unexpected lead vehicle braking scenario and the detection response task (DRT)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. - 1369-8478. ; 59, s. 463-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of cognitive distraction on traffic safety and driver performance are unclear and under debate. Based on increased response times to stimuli or events in controlled driving experiments, concerns, primarily about cell phone usage during driving, have been raised. But while cognitive load repeatedly have been shown to increase response times in artificial tasks such as the Detection Response Task (DRT), the generalizability of the results to response times in critical traffic situations is questionable. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, response times in the DRT were measured during simulated driving with and without execution of a cognitively loading secondary task. In Experiment 2, brake response times in an unexpected lead vehicle braking scenario were measured with and without the same cognitively loading task. Results: In Experiment 1, DRT response times increased with increased level of cognitive load. In Experiment 2, brake response times were unaffected by cognitive load. Conclusion: The response time results from the artificial DRT did not generalize to the critical lead vehicle braking scenario. This finding can possibly be explained by the cognitive control hypothesis, which suggests that cognitive load selectively impairs driving subtasks that rely on cognitive control (i.e. novel or inconsistent tasks) but leaves automatic performance unaffected (Engström, Markkula, Victor, & Merat, 2017). While the DRT responses, because of the task novelty, can be assumed to require cognitive control, responses to visually expanding objects, such as a braking lead vehicle with short time headway, are triggered automatically. Common interpretations of the effect of cognitive load on traffic safety thus need to be re-examined. It seems inappropriate to generalize from effects of cognitive load on DRT, or other artificial laboratory tasks that rely on cognitive control, to unexpected real-world situations where responses are triggered primarily by looming cues.
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