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1.
  • Nilsson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 19:11, s. 1557-1566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n = 498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD). We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed. Introduction Physical activity (PA) increases bone mineral density (BMD) during growth. It is unclear if the positive effects remain at old age. In this study, we aimed to determine if PA early in life was associated with BMD in elderly men. Methods In this population-based study, 498 men, 75.2 +/- .3 (mean +/- SD) years old, were included. BMD was assessed using DXA. Data concerning lifetime PA, including both competitive (CS) and recreational sports (RS), and occupational physical load (OPL), were collected at interview. Results Subjects in the highest frequency group of CS in the early period (10-35 years), had higher BMD at the total body (4.2%, p < 0.01), total hip (7.0%, p < 0.01), trochanter (8.7%, p < 0.01), and lumbar spine (7.9%, p < 0.01), than subjects not involved in CS. A stepwise linear regression model showed that frequency of CS in the early period independently positively predicted present BMD at the total body (beta=0.12, p < 0.01), total hip (beta=0.11, p < 0.01), trochanter (beta=0.12, p < 0.01), and lumbar spine (beta=0.11, p=0.01). Conclusions We demonstrate that PA in CS early in life is associated with BMD in 75-year-old Swedish men, indicating that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.
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2.
  • Banefelt, J., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of imminent fracture following a previous fracture in a Swedish database study
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 30:3, s. 601-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary: This study examined the imminent risk of a future fracture within 1 and 2 years following a first fracture in women aged 50 years and older and assessed independent factors associated with risk of subsequent fractures. The study highlights the need to intervene rapidly after a fracture to prevent further fractures. Introduction: This study aims to determine the imminent risk of subsequent fractures within 1 and 2 years following a first fracture and to assess independent factors associated with subsequent fractures. Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study of women aged ≥ 50 years with a fragility fracture was identified from Swedish national registers. Clinical/demographic characteristics at the time of index fracture and cumulative fracture incidences up to 12 and 24 months following index fracture were calculated. Risk factors for subsequent fracture were identified using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Two hundred forty-two thousand one hundred eight women (mean [SD] age 74 [12.5] years) were included. The cumulative subsequent fracture incidence at 12 months was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9–7.2) and at 24 months was 12.0% (95% CI, 11.8–12.1). The rate of subsequent fractures was highest in the first month (~ 15 fractures per 1000 patient-years) and remained steady between 4 and 24 months (~ 5 fractures/1000 patient-years). Higher age was an independent risk factor for imminent subsequent fractures (at 24 months, sub-distribution hazard ratio [HR], 3.07; p < 0.001 for women 80–89 years [reference 50–59 years]). Index vertebral fracture was a strong independent risk factor for subsequent fracture (sub-distribution HR, 2.72 versus hip fracture; p < 0.001 over 12 months; HR, 2.23; p < 0.001 over 24 months). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the need to intervene rapidly after any fragility fracture in postmenopausal women. The occurrence of a fragility fracture provides healthcare systems with a unique opportunity to intervene to reduce the increased risk of subsequent fractures.
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3.
  • Eriksson, Anna-Lena, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • SHBG gene promoter polymorphisms in men are associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin, androgen and androgen metabolite levels, and hip bone mineral density.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 91:12, s. 5029-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: SHBG regulates free sex steroid levels, which in turn regulate skeletal homeostasis. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors largely account for interindividual variation in SHBG levels. Glucuronidated androgen metabolites have been proposed as markers of androgenic activity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SHBG gene promoter [(TAAAA)(n) microsatellite and rs1799941 single-nucleotide polymorphism] are associated with serum levels of SHBG, sex steroids, or bone mineral density (BMD) in men. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two cohorts of Swedish men: elderly men (MrOS Sweden; n congruent with 3000; average age, 75.4 yr) and young adult men (GOOD study; n = 1068; average age, 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured serum levels of SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides, androsterone glucuronide, and BMD determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: In both cohorts, (TAAAA)(n) and rs1799941 genotypes were associated with serum levels of SHBG (P < 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P < 0.05), and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides (P < 0.05). In the elderly men, they were also associated with testosterone and BMD at all hip bone sites. The genotype associated with high levels of SHBG was also associated with high BMD. Interestingly, male mice overexpressing human SHBG had increased cortical bone mineral content in the femur, suggesting that elevated SHBG levels may cause increased bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in the SHBG promoter predict serum levels of SHBG, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites, and hip BMD in men.
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4.
  • Hammarsten, J, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin and free oestradiol are independent risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5608 .- 1365-7852. ; 12:2, s. 160-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aetiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to test the insulin, oestradiol and metabolic syndrome hypotheses as promoters of BPH. The design was a risk factor analysis of BPH in which the total prostate gland volume was related to endocrine and anthropometric factors. The participants studied were 184 representative men, aged 72-76 years, residing in Göteborg, Sweden. Using a multivariate analysis, BPH as measured by the total prostate gland volume correlated statistically significantly with fasting serum insulin (beta=0.200, P=0.028), free oestradiol (beta=0.233, P=0.008) and lean body mass (beta=0.257, P=0.034). Insulin and free oestradiol appear to be independent risk factors for BPH, confirming both the insulin and the oestradiol hypotheses. Our findings also seem to confirm the metabolic syndrome hypothesis. The metabolic syndrome and its major endocrine aberration, hyperinsulinaemia, are possible primary events in BPH.
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5.
  • Johansson, Helena, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Low serum vitamin D is associated with increased mortality in elderly men: MrOS Sweden.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : Springer. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 23:3, s. 991-999
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In elderly man, low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was associated with a substantial excess risk of death compared to 25(OH)D values greater than 50-70 nmol/l, but the association attenuated with time. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to determine whether poor vitamin D status was associated with an increase in the risk of death in elderly men. METHODS: We studied the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and the risk of death in 2,878 elderly men drawn from the population and recruited to the MrOS study in Sweden. Baseline data included general health and lifestyle measures and serum 25(OH)D measured by competitive RIA. Men were followed for up to 8.2 years (average 6.0 years). RESULTS: Mortality adjusted for comorbidities decreased by 5% for each SD increase in 25(OH)D overall (gradient of risk 1.05; 95% confidence interval 0.96-1.14). The predictive value of 25(OH)D for death was greatest below a threshold value of 50-70 nmol/l, was greatest at approximately 3 years after baseline and thereafter decreased with time. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OH)D is associated with a substantial excess risk of death compared to 25(OH)D values greater than 50-70 nmol/l, but the association attenuates with time. These findings, if causally related, have important implications for intervention in elderly men.
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6.
  • Jonsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • A health economic simulation model for the clinical management of osteoporosis
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 29:3, s. 545-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary: The objective was to estimate the burden of osteoporosis in Sweden based on current clinical practice and the cost-effectiveness of improvements in the management of osteoporosis over the clinical management compared to current clinical practice. Results showed that better compliance to treatment guidelines is associated with better projected outcomes and cost-savings. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to estimate the burden of osteoporosis in Sweden based on current clinical practice and the cost-effectiveness of improvements in the management of osteoporosis over the clinical management compared to current clinical practice. Methods: The analysis was carried out using a model that simulates the individual patients considered for pharmacological treatment during 1 year and their projected osteoporosis treatment pathway, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs over their remaining lifetime. All patients regardless of treatment or no treatment were simulated. Information on current management of osteoporosis in terms of patient characteristics and treatment patterns were derived from a Swedish osteoporosis research database based on national registers and patient records. Current (standard) clinical management was compared with alternative scenarios mirroring Swedish treatment guidelines. Results: The national burden in terms of lost QALYs was estimated at 14,993 QALYs and the total economic cost at €776M. Scenario analyses showed that 382–3864 QALYs could be gained at a cost/QALY ranging from cost-saving to €31368, depending on the scenario. The margin of investment, i.e. the maximum amount that could be invested in the healthcare system to achieve these improvements up to the limit of the willingness to pay/QALY, was estimated at €199M on a population level (€3,634/patient). Conclusions: The analysis showed that better compliance to treatment guidelines is associated with better projected outcomes and cost-savings. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there is also considerable room for investment to achieve these improvements in the management of osteoporosis.
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7.
  • Karlsson, M. K., et al. (författare)
  • Inferior physical performance tests in 10,998 men in the MrOS study is associated with recurrent falls
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-0729 .- 1468-2834. ; 41:6, s. 740-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: recurrent fallers are at especially high risk for injuries. Objective: to study whether tests of physical performance are associated with recurrent falls. Subjects: a total of 10,998 men aged 65 years or above. Methods: questionnaires evaluated falls sustained 12 months preceding testing of grip strength, timed stand, 6-m walk and 20-cm narrow walk test. Means with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) are reported. P < 0.01 is a statistically significant difference. Results: in comparison to both occasional fallers and non-fallers, recurrent fallers performed more poorly on all the physical ability tests (all P < 0.001). A score below -2 standard deviations (SDs) in the right-hand grip strength test was associated with an odds ratio of 2.4 (95% CI 1.7, 3.4) for having had recurrent falls compared with having had no fall and of 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 3.4) for having had recurrent falls compared with having had an occasional fall. Conclusion: low performance in physical ability tests are in elderly men associated with recurrent falls.
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8.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 43:8, s. 753-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14 most significant (P < 10(-6)) independent loci in 39,576 individuals. We confirmed a previously established adiposity locus in FTO (P = 3 × 10(-26)) and identified two new loci associated with body fat percentage, one near IRS1 (P = 4 × 10(-11)) and one near SPRY2 (P = 3 × 10(-8)). Both loci contain genes with potential links to adipocyte physiology. Notably, the body-fat-decreasing allele near IRS1 is associated with decreased IRS1 expression and with an impaired metabolic profile, including an increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and decreased adiponectin levels. Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance.
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9.
  • Lauppe, Rosa, et al. (författare)
  • Differing impact of clinical factors on the risk of fracture in younger and older women in the general population and an osteoporosis clinic population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Archives of Osteoporosis. - : Springer. - 1862-3522 .- 1862-3514. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary: This study assesses the impact of risk factors for fracture in women aged 80+ and 60–79. The results suggest that risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort. Purpose: This study assesses whether the impact of classical risk factors for fracture due to osteoporosis is different in women aged 80+ and women aged 60–79. Since most prior research on the contribution of risk factors is based on patients below 80 years of age, this study aims to fill this knowledge gap to increase the accuracy of risk assessment in the oldest old. Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study using Swedish national health register data and BMD data from osteoporosis clinics. Women aged at least 60 were identified from a random sample of the general population and from the BMD databases and allocated to two populations representing patients at different stages of risk assessment. The relative impact of risk factors on fracture risk was assessed using multivariate competing risk regression with fracture as outcome and death as competing event. Results: A total of 163,329 women were included from the general population (52,499 aged 80+) and 22,378 from the BMD databases (4563 aged 80+). The clinical risk factors with relatively highest effect on fracture risk in the older patients were prior fracture and hip T-score below − 2.5 SD. Other included risk factors showed lower impact in the older compared to the younger strata. Conclusions: This study confirms our understanding of the key risk factors for fracture: age, prior fracture, and a low T-score. Regarding remaining risk factors, risk assessment which fits younger women may not be suited for the 80+ strata as many common risk factors are less predictive in the older compared to the younger cohort.
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10.
  • Lewerin, Catharina, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Low holotranscobalamin and cobalamins predict incident fractures in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. - : Springer London. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 25:1, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a population-based study on cobalamin status and incident fractures in elderly men (n = 790) with an average follow-up of 5.9 years, we found that low levels of metabolically active and total cobalamins predict incident fractures, independently of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and cystatin C.
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