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Sökning: WFRF:(Ljunggren Elin)

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  • Eriksson, Anna L, et al. (författare)
  • The COMT val158met polymorphism is associated with prevalent fractures in Swedish men.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bone. - 8756-3282. ; 42:1, s. 107-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Sex steroids are important for growth and maintenance of the skeleton. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an estrogen degrading enzyme. The COMT val158met polymorphism results in a 60-75% difference in enzyme activity between the val (high activity=H) and met (low activity=L) variants. We have previously reported that this polymorphism is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in young men. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between COMT val158met, BMD and fractures in elderly men. METHODS: Population-based study of Swedish men 75.4, SD 3.2, years of age. Fractures were reported using standardized questionnaires. Fracture and genotype data were available from 2822 individuals. RESULTS: Total number of individuals with self-reported fracture was 989 (35.0%). Prevalence of >/=1 fracture was 37.2% in COMT(LL), 35.7% in COMT(HL) and 30.4% in COMT(HH) (p<0.05). Early fractures (</=50 years of age) were less common in COMT(HH) than in the combined COMT(LL+HL) genotype, OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97). No associations were found for late fractures (>50 years of age). The OR for fracture of the non-weight bearing skeleton in COMT(HH) compared with COMT(LL+HL) was 0.74 (95% CI 0.59-0.92). No associations between COMT val158met and BMD were found in this cohort of elderly men. CONCLUSIONS: The COMT val158met polymorphism is associated with life time fracture prevalence in elderly Swedish men. This association is mainly driven by early fractures (</=50 years of age).
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 x 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 x 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Jonsson, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC medical genomics. - 1755-8794. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: One consistent finding in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a decreased level of the pineal gland hormone melatonin and it has recently been demonstrated that this decrease to a large extent is due to low activity of the acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), the last enzyme in the melatonin synthesis pathway. Moreover, mutations in the ASMT gene have been identified, including a splice site mutation, that were associated with low ASMT activity and melatonin secretion, suggesting that the low ASMT activity observed in autism is, at least partly, due to variation within the ASMT gene. METHODS: In the present study, we have investigated all the genes involved in the melatonin pathway by mutation screening of AA-NAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase), ASMT, MTNR1A, MTNR1B (melatonin receptor 1A and 1B) and GPR50 (G protein-coupled receptor 50), encoding both synthesis enzymes and the three main receptors of melatonin, in 109 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A cohort of 188 subjects from the general population was used as a comparison group and was genotyped for the variants identified in the patient sample. RESULTS: Several rare variants were identified in patients with ASD, including the previously reported splice site mutation in ASMT (IVS5+2T>C). Of the variants affecting protein sequence, only the V124I in the MTNR1B gene was absent in our comparison group. However, mutations were found in upstream regulatory regions in three of the genes investigated, ASMT, MTNR1A, and MTNR1B. CONCLUSIONS: Our report of another ASD patient carrying the splice site mutation IVS5+2T>C, in ASMT further supports an involvement of this gene in autism. Moreover, our results also suggest that other melatonin related genes might be interesting candidates for further investigation in the search for genes involved in autism spectrum disorders and related neurobehavioral phenotypes. However, further studies of the novel variants identified in this study are warranted to shed light on their potential role in the pathophysiology of these disorders.
  • Marsell, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Fibroblast growth factor-23 is associated with parathyroid hormone and renal function in a population-based cohort of elderly men.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies. - 1479-683X. ; 158:1, s. 125-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a circulating factor involved in phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D metabolism. Serum FGF23 is increased at later stages of chronic kidney disease due to chronic hyperphosphatemia and decreased renal clearance. Recent studies also indicate that FGF23 may directly regulate the expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in vitro. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between FGF23, PTH, and other biochemistries in vivo in subjects with no history of renal disease. Design: Serum biochemistries were measured in a subsample of the population-based Swedish part of the MrOS study In total, 1000 Caucasian men aged 70-80 years were randomly selected from the population. Methods: Intact FGF23, Pi, calcium, albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, calculated from cystatin C), PTH, and 25(OH)D-3 were measured. Association studies were performed using linear univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: The median FGF23 level was 36.6 pg/ml, ranging from 0.63 to 957 pg/ml. There was a significant correlation between log FGF23 and eGFR (r=-0.21; P < 0.00001) and log PTH (r=0.13; P < 0,001). These variables remained as independent predictors of FGF23 in multivariate analysis. In addition, log PTH (beta = 0.082; P < 0.05) and eGFR (beta = 0.090: P < 0.05) were associated with log FGF23 in subjects with eGFR > 60 ml/min. Only eGFR (beta = 0.35; P < 0.0001.) remained as a predictor of log FGF23 in subjects with eGFR < 60 ml/min. Conclusions: Serum FGF23 and PTH are associated in vivo, supporting recent findings that FGF23 directly regulates PTH expression in vitro. Additionally, eGFR is associated with FGF23 in subjects with normal or mildly impaired renal function, indicating that GFR may modulate FGF23 levels independent of serum Pi.
  • Ribom, Eva L, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of physical performance and measurements of habitual physical activity may capture men with high risk to fall--data from the Mr Os Sweden cohort.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. - 1872-6976. ; 49:1, s. e72-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate if clinically usable estimates of physical performance and level of habitual physical activity are associated with fall risk in elderly men. A population-based sample of 3014 randomly selected men aged 69-80 years was recruited to medical centers in Gothenburg, Malmoe, or Uppsala. The level of physical activity and self-reported falls during the preceding 12 months was evaluated using a questionnaire. The physical performance ability was estimated by measurements of handgrip strength, a timed stands test, a 6-m walking test and a 20-cm narrow walk test. Falls were reported in 16.5% of the men. Fallers performed 6.2 ± 19.0% (mean ± standard deviations; S.D.) less in right handgrip measures, 8.8 ± 40.6% slower in the timed stands test, 6.8 ± 30.8% slower in the 6-m walking test, and 5.3 ± 28.8% slower in the 20-cm narrow walk test (all p < 0.001, respectively). The odds ratio for falls among men who performed <-3 S.D. or failed compared to the mean (+1 S.D. to -1 S.D.) in the timed stands test was 3.41 (95% CI 2.31-5.02; p < 0.001) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.80-3.34; p < 0.001) in 20-cm narrow walk test. There were more fallers that never were physical active (73.0% vs. 65.4%, p < 0.001) and who were sitting more (6.4 ± 2.5 h/day vs. 6.0 ± 2.3 h/day, p < 0.05) than among the non-fallers. Fallers scored less than non-fallers in all the estimates of physical performance and they were more sedentary in their life style. The report suggests that clinical usable tests of physical performance and evaluation of habitual physical activity in the clinical situation possibly can be used to predict risk of falls in elderly men.
  • Correa, Fernando, et al. (författare)
  • The Nrf2-inducible antioxidant defense in astrocytes can be both up- and down-regulated by activated microglia:Involvement of p38 MAPK.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Glia. - 1098-1136. ; 59:5, s. 785-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of microglia-conditioned medium (MCM) on the inducible Nrf2 system in astrocyte-rich cultures were investigated by determination of glutathione (GSH) levels, γglutamylcysteine ligase (γGCL) activity, the protein levels of Nrf2, Keap1, the modulatory subunit of γGCL (γGCL-M) and activated MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK and p38). Microglia were either cultured for 24 h in serum-free culture medium to achieve microglia-conditioned medium from non-activated cells (MCM(0) ), used as control condition, or activated with different concentrations (0.1-1,000 ng mL(-1) ) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce MCM(0.1-1,000) . Acute exposure (24 h) to MCM(100) increased GSH, γGCL activity, the protein levels of γGCL-M, Nrf2, and activated JNK and ERK1/2 in astrocyte-rich cultures. In contrast, treatment with MCM(10) for 24 h decreased components of the Nrf2 system in parallel with activation of p38 MAPK. Stimulation of the Nrf2 system by tBHQ was partly intact after 24 h but blocked after 72 h treatment with MCM(10) and MCM(100) . This down-regulation after 72 h correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and lack of ERK1/2 and JNK activation. The negative effects were partly reversed by an inhibitor of p38 which restored tBHQ mediated protection against oxidative stress. In conclusion, the study showed a negative effect of MCM(10) on the inducible anti-oxidant defense in astrocyte-rich cultures at both 24 and 72 h that correlated with activation of p38 and was partly reversed by a p38 inhibitor. A transient protective effect of MCM(100) on astrocyte-rich cultures against H(2)O(2) toxicity was observed at 24 h which coincided with activation of JNK and ERK1/2.
  • Correa, Fernando, et al. (författare)
  • Time-Dependent Effects of Systemic Lipopolysaccharide Injection on Regulators of Antioxidant Defence Nrf2 and PGC-1α in the Neonatal Rat Brain.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neuroimmunomodulation. - 1423-0216. ; 20:4, s. 185-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Both excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation are associated with oxidative stress. One transcription factor, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and one transcription cofactor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), increase the endogenous antioxidant defence and can thus modulate neuronal cell death. Here, we investigated the temporal effects (after 24 and 72 h) of systemic (i.p.) administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the cerebral Nrf2 and PGC-1α systems. Methods and Results: Seven-day-old rat pups were injected with LPS (0.3 mg/kg). After 24 h, the protein levels of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase modulatory subunit, γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, Nrf2, PGC-1α and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were increased in parallel with decreased levels of Keap1. These effects were correlated with an increased level of phosphorylated Akt and elevated acetylation of histone 4. In contrast, 72 h following LPS, a decrease in the components of the Nrf2 system in parallel with an increase in Keap1 was observed. The down-regulation after 72 h correlated with phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, while there were no changes in PGC-1α and MnSOD protein levels or the acetylation/methylation pattern of histones. Conclusion: Systemic LPS in neonatal rats induced time-dependent changes in brain Nrf2 and PGC-1α that correlated well with the protective effect observed after 24 h (pre-conditioning) and the deleterious effects observed after 72 h (sensitizing) of systemic LPS reported earlier. Collectively, the results point towards Nrf2 and PGC-1α as a possible mechanism behind these effects.
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