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Sökning: WFRF:(Llorens F.)

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1.
  • Poyatos, R., et al. (författare)
  • Global transpiration data from sap flow measurements: the SAPFLUXNET database
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1866-3508 .- 1866-3516. ; 13:6, s. 2607-2649
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant transpiration links physiological responses of vegetation to water supply and demand with hydrological, energy, and carbon budgets at the land-atmosphere interface. However, despite being the main land evaporative flux at the global scale, transpiration and its response to environmental drivers are currently not well constrained by observations. Here we introduce the first global compilation of whole-plant transpiration data from sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET, https://sapfluxnet.creaf.cat/, last access: 8 June 2021). We harmonized and quality-controlled individual datasets supplied by contributors worldwide in a semi-automatic data workflow implemented in the R programming language. Datasets include sub-daily time series of sap flow and hydrometeorological drivers for one or more growing seasons, as well as metadata on the stand characteristics, plant attributes, and technical details of the measurements. SAPFLUXNET contains 202 globally distributed datasets with sap flow time series for 2714 plants, mostly trees, of 174 species. SAPFLUXNET has a broad bioclimatic coverage, with woodland/shrubland and temperate forest biomes especially well represented (80 % of the datasets). The measurements cover a wide variety of stand structural characteristics and plant sizes. The datasets encompass the period between 1995 and 2018, with 50 % of the datasets being at least 3 years long. Accompanying radiation and vapour pressure deficit data are available for most of the datasets, while on-site soil water content is available for 56 % of the datasets. Many datasets contain data for species that make up 90 % or more of the total stand basal area, allowing the estimation of stand transpiration in diverse ecological settings. SAPFLUXNET adds to existing plant trait datasets, ecosystem flux networks, and remote sensing products to help increase our understanding of plant water use, plant responses to drought, and ecohydrological processes. SAPFLUXNET version 0.1.5 is freely available from the Zenodo repository (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3971689; Poyatos et al., 2020a). The "sapfluxnetr" R package - designed to access, visualize, and process SAPFLUXNET data - is available from CRAN.
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  • Mangano, M. C., et al. (författare)
  • The aquaculture supply chain in the time of covid-19 pandemic : Vulnerability, resilience, solutions and priorities at the global scale
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy. - : Elsevier. - 1462-9011 .- 1873-6416. ; 127, s. 98-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COVID-19 global pandemic has had severe, unpredictable and synchronous impacts on all levels of perishable food supply chains (PFSC), across multiple sectors and spatial scales. Aquaculture plays a vital and rapidly expanding role in food security, in some cases overtaking wild caught fisheries in the production of high quality animal protein in this PFSC. We performed a rapid global assessment to evaluate the effects of the COVID19 pandemic and related emerging control measures on the aquaculture supply chain. Socio-economic effects of the pandemic were analysed by surveying the perceptions of stakeholders, who were asked to describe potential supply-side disruption, vulnerabilities and resilience patterns along the production pipeline with four main supply chain components: a) hatchery, b) production/processing, c) distribution/logistics and d) market. We also assessed different farming strategies, comparing land-vs. sea-based systems; extensive vs. intensive methods; and with and without integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, IMTA. In addition to evaluating levels and sources of economic distress, interviewees were asked to identify mitigation solutions adopted at local / internal (i.e., farm site) scales, and to express their preference on national / external scale mitigation measures among a set of a priori options. Survey responses identified the potential causes of disruption, ripple effects, sources of food insecurity, and socio-economic conflicts. They also pointed to various levels of mitigation strategies. The collated evidence represents a first baseline useful to address future disaster-driven responses, to reinforce the resilience of the sector and to facilitate the design reconstruction plans and mitigation measures, such as financial aid strategies.
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  • Sara, G., et al. (författare)
  • The Synergistic Impacts of Anthropogenic Stressors and COVID-19 on Aquaculture : A Current Global Perspective
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Reviews In Fisheries Science & Aquaculture. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2330-8249.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rapid, global spread of COVID-19, and the measures intended to limit or slow its propagation, are having major impacts on diverse sectors of society. Notably, these impacts are occurring in the context of other anthropogenic-driven threats including global climate change. Both anthropogenic stressors and the COVID-19 pandemic represent significant economic challenges to aquaculture systems across the globe, threatening the supply chain of one of the most important sources of animal protein, with potential disproportionate impacts on vulnerable communities. A web survey was conducted in 47 countries in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic to assess how aquaculture activities have been affected by the pandemic, and to explore how these impacts compare to those from climate change. A positive correlation between the effects of the two categories of drivers was detected, but analysis suggests that the pandemic and the anthropogenic stressors affect different parts of the supply chain. The immediate measurable reported losses varied with aquaculture typology (land vs. marine, and intensive vs. extensive). A comparably lower impact on farmers reporting the use of integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) methods suggests that IMTA might enhance resilience to multiple stressors by providing different market options under the COVID-19 pandemic. Results emphasize the importance of assessing detrimental effects of COVID-19 under a multiple stressor lens, focusing on areas that have already locally experienced economic loss due to anthropogenic stressors in the last decade. Holistic policies that simultaneously address other ongoing anthropogenic stressors, rather than focusing solely on the acute impacts of COVID-19, are needed to maximize the long-term resilience of the aquaculture sector.
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  • Vallabh, S. M., et al. (författare)
  • Prion protein quantification in human cerebrospinal fluid as a tool for prion disease drug development
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 116:16, s. 7793-7798
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reduction of native prion protein (PrP) levels in the brain is an attractive strategy for the treatment or prevention of human prion disease. Clinical development of any PrP-reducing therapeutic will require an appropriate pharmacodynamic biomarker: a practical and robust method for quantifying PrP, and reliably demonstrating its reduction in the central nervous system (CNS) of a living patient. Here we evaluate the potential of ELISA-based quantification of human PrP in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to serve as a biomarker for PrP-reducing therapeutics. We show that CSF PrP is highly sensitive to plastic adsorption during handling and storage, but its loss can be minimized by the addition of detergent. We find that blood contamination does not affect CSF PrP levels, and that CSF PrP and hemoglobin are uncorrelated, together suggesting that CSF PrP is CNS derived, supporting its relevance for monitoring the tissue of interest and in keeping with high PrP abundance in brain relative to blood. In a cohort with controlled sample handling, CSF PrP exhibits good within-subject test–retest reliability (mean coefficient of variation, 13% in samples collected 8–11 wk apart), a sufficiently stable baseline to allow therapeutically meaningful reductions in brain PrP to be readily detected in CSF. Together, these findings supply a method for monitoring the effect of a PrP-reducing drug in the CNS, and will facilitate development of prion disease therapeutics with this mechanism of action. © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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  • Blennow, Kaj, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • - CSF neurogranin as a neuronal damage marker in CJD: A comparative study with AD
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. - 0022-3050. ; 90:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • - Objective: To investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurogranin concentrations are altered in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), comparatively with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and associated with neuronal degeneration in brain tissue. Methods: CSF neurogranin, total tau, neurofilament light (NFL) and 14-3-3 protein were measured in neurological controls (NCs, n=64), AD (n=46) and CJD (n=81). The accuracy of neurogranin discriminating the three diagnostic groups was evaluated. Correlations between neurogranin and neurodegeneration biomarkers, demographic, genetic and clinical data were assessed. Additionally, neurogranin expression in postmortem brain tissue was studied. Results: Compared with NC, CSF neurogranin concentrations were increased in CJD (4.75 times of NC; p<0.001, area under curve (AUC), 0.96 (95% CI 0.93 to 0.99) and AD (1.94 times of NC; p<0.01, AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.82), and were able to differentiate CJD from AD (p<0.001, AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.92). CSF tau was increased in CJD (41 times of NC) and in AD (3.1 times of NC), both at p<0.001. In CJD, neurogranin positively correlated with tau (r=0.55, p<0.001) and was higher in 14-3-3-positivity (p<0.05), but showed no association with NFL (r=0.08, p=0.46). CJD-MM1/MV1 cases displayed higher neurogranin levels than VV2 cases. Neurogranin was increased at early CJD disease stages and was a good prognostic marker of survival time in CJD. In brain tissue, neurogranin was detected in the cytoplasm, membrane and postsynaptic density fractions of neurons, with reduced levels in AD, and more significantly in CJD, where they correlated with synaptic and axonal markers. Conclusions: Neurogranin is a new biomarker of prion pathogenesis with diagnostic and prognostic abilities, which reflects the degree of neuronal damage in brain tissue in a CJD subtype manner. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
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  • Diaz-Lucena, D., et al. (författare)
  • TREM2 expression in the brain and biological fluids in prion diseases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - 0001-6322. ; 141, s. 841-859
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an innate immune cell surface receptor that regulates microglial function and is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Its soluble form (sTREM2) results from shedding of the TREM2 ectodomain. The role of TREM2 in prion diseases, a group of rapidly progressive dementias remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we analysed the expression of TREM2 and its main sheddase ADAM10 in the brain of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and evaluated the role of CSF and plasma sTREM2 as a potential diagnostic marker of prion disease. Our data indicate that, compared to controls, TREM2 is increased in sCJD patient brains at the mRNA and protein levels in a regional and subtype dependent fashion, and expressed in a subpopulation of microglia. In contrast, ADAM10 is increased at the protein, but not the mRNA level, with a restricted neuronal expression. Elevated CSF sTREM2 is found in sCJD, genetic CJD with mutations E200K and V210I in the prion protein gene (PRNP), and iatrogenic CJD, as compared to healthy controls (HC) (AUC = 0.78-0.90) and neurological controls (AUC = 0.73-0.85), while CSF sTREM2 is unchanged in fatal familial insomnia. sTREM2 in the CSF of cases with Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis was not significantly altered in our series. CSF sTREM2 concentrations in sCJD are PRNP codon 129 and subtype-related, correlate with CSF 14-3-3 positivity, total-tau and YKL-40, and increase with disease progression. In plasma, sTREM2 is increased in sCJD compared with HC (AUC = 0.80), displaying positive correlations with plasma total-tau, neurofilament light, and YKL-40. We conclude that comparative study of TREM2 in brain and biological fluids of prion diseases reveals TREM2 to be altered in human prion diseases with a potential value in target engagement, patient stratification, and disease monitoring.
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10.
  • Gallart, F., et al. (författare)
  • Using internal catchment information to reduce the uncertainty of discharge and baseflow prediction
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Advances in Water Resources. - 0309-1708 .- 1872-9657. ; 30:4, s. 808-823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The semi-distributed hydrological model TOPMODEL was tested with data from the Can Vila research basin (Vallcebre) in order to verify its adequacy for simulating runoff and the relative contributions from saturated overland flow and groundwater flow. After a test of the overall performance of the model, only data from a wet period were selected for this work. The test was performed using the GLUE method. The model was conditioned on continuous discharge and water table records. Furthermore, point measurements of recession flow simultaneous with water table depth and the extent of saturated areas were used to condition the distributions of the more relevant parameters, using new or updated evaluation measures. A wide range of parameter sets provided acceptable results for flow simulation when the model was conditioned on flow data alone, and the uncertainty of prediction of the contribution from groundwater was extremely large. However, conditioning on water table records and the distribution of parameters obtained from point observations strongly reduced the uncertainty of predictions for both stream flow and groundwater contribution.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
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