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Sökning: WFRF:(Lopes AC)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 43
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1.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
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6.
  • Lopes, Viviana R., et al. (författare)
  • Dose-dependent autophagic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human HaCaT cells at non-cytotoxic levels
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nanobiotechnology. - 1477-3155 .- 1477-3155. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Interactions between nanoparticles and cells are now the focus of a fast-growing area of research. Though many nanoparticles interact with cells without any acute toxic responses, metal oxide nanoparticles including those composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs) may disrupt the intracellular process of macroautophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in human health and disease, particularly in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. We herein investigated the in vitro biological effects of TiO2-NPs (18 nm) on autophagy in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells at non-cytotoxic levels. Results: TiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering techniques. Cellular uptake, as evaluated by TEM and NanoSIMS revealed that NPs internalization led to the formation of autophagosomes. TiO2-NPs treatment did not reduce cell viability of HaCaT cells nor increased oxidative stress. Cellular autophagy was additionally evaluated by confocal microscopy using eGFP-LC3 keratinocytes, western blotting of autophagy marker LC3I/II, immunodetection of p62 and NBR1 proteins, and gene expression of LC3II, p62, NBR1, beclin1 and ATG5 by RT-qPCR. We also confirmed the formation and accumulation of autophagosomes in NPs treated cells with LC3-II upregulation. Based on the lack of degradation of p62 and NBR1 proteins, autophagosomes accumulation at a high dose (25.0 mu g/ml) is due to blockage while a low dose (0.16 mu g/ml) promoted autophagy. Cellular viability was not affected in either case. Conclusions: The uptake of TiO2-NPs led to a dose-dependent increase in autophagic effect under non-cytotoxic conditions. Our results suggest dose-dependent autophagic effect over time as a cellular response to TiO2-NPs. Most importantly, these findings suggest that simple toxicity data are not enough to understand the full impact of TiO2-NPs and their effects on cellular pathways or function.
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7.
  • Rieke, Johanna Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • SLC20A1 Is Involved in Urinary Tract and Urorectal Development
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 2296-634X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies in developing Xenopus and zebrafish reported that the phosphate transporter slc20a1a is expressed in pronephric kidneys. The recent identification of SLC20A1 as a monoallelic candidate gene for cloacal exstrophy further suggests its involvement in the urinary tract and urorectal development. However, little is known of the functional role of SLC20A1 in urinary tract development. Here, we investigated this using morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of the zebrafish ortholog slc20a1a. This caused kidney cysts and malformations of the cloaca. Moreover, in morphants we demonstrated dysfunctional voiding and hindgut opening defects mimicking imperforate anus in human cloacal exstrophy. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry of an unaffected 6-week-old human embryo and detected SLC20A1 in the urinary tract and the abdominal midline, structures implicated in the pathogenesis of cloacal exstrophy. Additionally, we resequenced SLC20A1 in 690 individuals with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) including 84 individuals with cloacal exstrophy. We identified two additional monoallelic de novo variants. One was identified in a case-parent trio with classic bladder exstrophy, and one additional novel de novo variant was detected in an affected mother who transmitted this variant to her affected son. To study the potential cellular impact of SLC20A1 variants, we expressed them in HEK293 cells. Here, phosphate transport was not compromised, suggesting that it is not a disease mechanism. However, there was a tendency for lower levels of cleaved caspase-3, perhaps implicating apoptosis pathways in the disease. Our results suggest SLC20A1 is involved in urinary tract and urorectal development and implicate SLC20A1 as a disease-gene for BEEC.
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8.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • A study of the energy evolution of event shape distributions and their means with the DELPHI detector at LEP
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 29:3, s. 285-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined in e(+)e(-) collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 45 and 202GeV. A phenomenological analysis based on power correction models including hadron mass effects for both differential distributions and mean values is presented. Using power corrections, alpha(s) is extracted from the mean values and shapes. In an alternative approach, renormalisation group invariance (RGI) is used as an explicit constraint, leading to a consistent description of mean values without the need for sizeable power corrections. The QCD beta-function is precisely measured using this approach. From the DELPHI data on Thrust, including data from low energy experiments, one finds beta(0) = 7.86 +/- 0.32 for the one loop coefficient of the beta-function or, assuming QCD, n(f) = 4.75 +/- 0.44 for the number of active flavours. These values agree well with the QCD expectation of beta(0) = 7.67 and n(f) 5. A direct measurement of the full logarithmic energy slope excludes light gluinos with a mass below 5GeV.
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9.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Charged particle multiplicity in three-jet events and two-gluon systems
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; C:44, s. 311-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The charged particle multiplicity in hadronic three-jet events from Z decays is investigated. The topology dependence of the event multiplicity is found to be well described by a modified leading logarithmic prediction. A parameter fit of the prediction to the data yields a measurement of the colour factor ratio C-A/C-F with the result C-A/C-F = 2.261 +/- 0.014(stat). +/- 0.036(exp). +/- 0-066(theo). in agreement with the SU(3) expectation of QCD. The quark-related contribution to the event multiplicity is subtracted from the three-jet event multiplicity resulting in a measurement of the multiplicity of two-gluon colour-singlet states over a wide energy range. The ratios r = N-gg(s)/Ng (g) over bar (s) of the gluon and quark multiplicities and r((1)) = N'(gg)(s)/N'g (g) over bar (s) of their derivatives are compared with perturbative calculations. While a good agreement between calculations and data is observed for r((1)), larger deviations are found for r indicating that non-perturbative effects are more important for r than for r((1)).
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10.
  • Abdallah, J, et al. (författare)
  • Coherent soft particle production in Z decays into three jets
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 605:1-2, s. 37-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-energy particle production perpendicular to the event plane in three-jet events produced in Z decays in e(+)e(-) annihilation is measured and compared to that perpendicular to the event axis in two-jet events. The topology dependence of the hadron production ratio is found to agree with a leading-order QCD prediction. This agreement and especially the need for the presence of a destructive interference term gives evidence for the coherent nature of gluon radiation. Hadron production in three-jet events is found to be directly proportional to a single topological scale function of the inter-jet angles. The slope of the dependence of the multiplicity with respect to the topological scale was measured to be 2.211 +/- 0.014(stat.) +/- 0.053(syst.) in good agreement with the expectation given by the colour-factor ratio C-A/C-F = 9/4. This result strongly supports the assumption of local parton-hadron duality, LPHD, at low hadron momentum.
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