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  • Hulthén, Lena, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Salt intake in young Swedish men.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Public health nutrition. - 1475-2727. ; 13:5, s. 601-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To measure dietary salt intake in a Swedish population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with measured 24 h urinary excretion of Na and K. Completeness of urine collection was assessed using p-aminobenzoic acid. The subjects were interviewed on their habitual food intake. SETTING: Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Eighty-six young men (age 18-20 years), randomly selected from the population of Gothenburg. Seven men were excluded due to incomplete urine collection. RESULTS: The mean excretion of Na and K over 24 h was 198 and 84 mmol, respectively (corresponding to 11.5 g NaCl and 3.3 g K). The mean 24 h excretion in the highest quartile of Na excretion was 297 mmol Na and 105 mmol K, and in the lowest quartile, 100 mmol Na and 68 mmol K. The mean Na:K ratio was 2.3, and respectively 3.2 and 1.8 in the highest and lowest Na excretion quartiles. Calculated energy intake did not differ between the highest and lowest quartiles of Na excretion, but body weight, BMI and the intake of certain foods known to be Na-rich did. CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake in young men was alarming high and even subjects in the lowest quartile of Na excretion did not meet present recommendations to limit salt intake to 5-6 g/d. At this point we can only speculate what the consequences of the high salt intake may be for CVD and stroke later in life. Regulation of the salt content in processed and fast food and in snacks is advocated, to curtail the salt burden on society imposed by the food industry.
  • Ribom, Eva L, et al. (författare)
  • Estimation of physical performance and measurements of habitual physical activity may capture men with high risk to fall-Data from the Mr Os Sweden cohort
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. - Elsevier. - 0167-4943. ; 49:1, s. 72-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate if clinically usable estimates of physical performance and level of habitual physical activity are associated with fall risk in elderly men. A population-based sample of 3014 randomly selected men aged 69-80 years was recruited to medical centers in Gothenburg, Malmoe, or Uppsala. The level of physical activity and self-reported falls during the preceding 12 months was evaluated using a questionnaire. The physical performance ability was estimated by measurements of handgrip strength, a timed stands test, a 6-m walking test and a 20-cm narrow walk test. Falls were reported in 16.5% of the men. Fallers performed 6.2 ± 19.0% (mean ± standard deviations; S.D.) less in right handgrip measures, 8.8 ± 40.6% slower in the timed stands test, 6.8 ± 30.8% slower in the 6-m walking test, and 5.3 ± 28.8% slower in the 20-cm narrow walk test (all p < 0.001, respectively). The odds ratio for falls among men who performed <-3 S.D. or failed compared to the mean (+1 S.D. to -1 S.D.) in the timed stands test was 3.41 (95% CI 2.31-5.02; p < 0.001) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.80-3.34; p < 0.001) in 20-cm narrow walk test. There were more fallers that never were physical active (73.0% vs. 65.4%, p < 0.001) and who were sitting more (6.4 ± 2.5 h/day vs. 6.0 ± 2.3 h/day, p < 0.05) than among the non-fallers. Fallers scored less than non-fallers in all the estimates of physical performance and they were more sedentary in their life style. The report suggests that clinical usable tests of physical performance and evaluation of habitual physical activity in the clinical situation possibly can be used to predict risk of falls in elderly men.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • cDNA-arrays and real-time quantitative PCR techniques in the investigation of chronic Achilles tendinosis.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Research. - 0736-0266. ; 21:6, s. 970-975
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aetiology and pathogenesis of chronic painful Achilles tendinosis are unknown. This investigation aimed to use cDNA arrays and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) technique to study tendinosis and control tissue samples. Five patients (females mean age 57.1+/-4.3 (years+/-SD)) with chronic painful Achilles tendinosis were included. From all patients, one biopsy was taken from the area with tendinosis and one from a clinically normal area (control) of the tendon. The tissue samples were immediately immersed in RNAlater and frozen at -80 degrees C until RNA extraction. Portions of pooled RNA from control and tendinosis sites, respectively, were transcribed to cDNA, radioactively labelled (32P), hybridized to cDNA expression arrays, and exposed to phosphoimager screens over night. Expressions of specific genes, shown to be regulated in the cDNA array analysis, were analyzed in the individual samples using real-time PCR. cDNA arrays showed that gene expressions for matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), fibronectin subunit B (FNRB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPKp38) were up-regulated, while matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and decorin were down-regulated, in tendinosis tissue compared with control tissue. Using real-time PCR, 4/5 and 3/5 patients showed up-regulation of MMP-2 and FNRB mRNA, respectively. For decorin, VEGF, and MAPKp38, real-time PCR revealed a great variability among patients. Interestingly, the mRNAs for several cytokines and cytokine receptors were not regulated, indicating the absence of an inflammatory process in chronic painful Achilles tendinosis. In conclusion, cDNA-arrays and real-time PCR can be used to study differences in gene expression levels between tendinosis and control tendon tissue.
  • Allen, Hana Lango, et al. (författare)
  • Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 1476-4687. ; 467:7317, s. 832-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits(1), but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait(2,3). The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P&lt;0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F., et al. (författare)
  • Association Between Alendronate Use and Hip Fracture Risk in Older Patients Using Oral Prednisolone
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. - 0098-7484. ; 318:2, s. 146-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance  Oral glucocorticoid treatment increases fracture risk, and evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of alendronate to protect against hip fracture in older patients using glucocorticoids.Objective  To investigate whether alendronate treatment in older patients using oral prednisolone is associated with decreased hip fracture risk and adverse effects.Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study using a national database (N = 433 195) of patients aged 65 years or older undergoing a health evaluation (baseline) at Swedish health care facilities; 1802 patients who were prescribed alendronate after at least 3 months of oral prednisolone treatment (≥5 mg/d) were identified. Propensity score matching was used to select 1802 patients without alendronate use from 6076 patients taking prednisolone with the same dose and treatment time criteria. Follow-up occurred between January 2008 and December 2014.Exposures  Alendronate vs no alendronate use; no patients had previously taken alendronate at the time of prednisolone initiation.Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was incident hip fracture.Results  Of the 3604 included patients, the mean age was 79.9 (SD, 7.5) years, and 2524 (70%) were women. After a median follow-up of 1.32 years (interquartile range, 0.57-2.34 years), there were 27 hip fractures in the alendronate group and 73 in the no-alendronate group, corresponding to incidence rates of 9.5 (95% CI, 6.5-13.9) and 27.2 (95% CI, 21.6-34.2) fractures per 1000 person-years, with an absolute rate difference of −17.6 (95% CI, −24.8 to −10.4). The use of alendronate was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in a multivariable-adjusted Cox model (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.54). Alendronate treatment was not associated with increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms (alendronate vs no alendronate, 15.6 [95% CI, 11.6-21.0] vs 12.9 [95% CI, 9.3-18.0] per 1000 person-years; P = .40) or peptic ulcers (10.9 [95% CI, 7.7-15.5] vs 11.4 [95% CI, 8.0-16.2] per 1000 person-years; P = .86). There were no cases of incident drug-induced osteonecrosis and only 1 case of femoral shaft fracture in each group.Conclusions and Relevance  Among older patients using medium to high doses of prednisolone, alendronate treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hip fracture over a median of 1.32 years. Although the findings are limited by the observational study design and the small number of events, these results support the use of alendronate in this patient group.
  • Axelsson, Kristian F., et al. (författare)
  • Fracture Risk After Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 1523-4681. ; 33:12, s. 2122-2131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38 971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31 213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation one-year post- surgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (IQR 1.7-4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05- 1.53 and HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47, respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Berndt, Sonja I., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:5, s. 501-U69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups.
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