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  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • Variants of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene are associated with fat mass in men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International journal of obesity (2005). - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5497 .- 0307-0565. ; 33:5, s. 525-533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Immune functions seem to have connections to variations in body fat mass. Studies of knockout mice indicate that endogenous interleukin (IL)-1 can suppress mature-onset obesity.Objective:To systematically investigate our hypotheses that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or haplotypes variants in the IL-1 gene system are associated with fat mass.Subjects:The Gothenburg osteoporosis and obesity determinants (GOOD) study is a population-based cross-sectional study of 18-20 year-old men (n=1068), from Gothenburg, Sweden. Major findings were confirmed in elderly men (n=3014) from the Swedish part of the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) multicenter population-based study.Main Outcome Measure:The genotype distributions and their association with body fat mass in different compartments, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).Results:Out of 15 investigated SNPs in the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene, a recently identified 3' untranslated region C>T (rs4252041, minor allele frequency=4%) SNP was associated with the primary outcome total fat mass (P=0.003) and regional fat masses, but not with lean body mass or serum IL-1 receptor 1 (IL1RN) levels. This SNP was also associated with body fat when correcting the earlier reported IL1RN+2018 T>C (rs419598) SNP (in linkage disequilibrium with a well-studied variable number tandem repeat of 86 bp). The association between rs4252041 SNP and body fat was confirmed in the older MrOS population (P=0.03). The rs4252041 SNP was part of three haplotypes consisting of five adjacent SNPs that were identified by a sliding window approach. These haplotypes had a highly significant global association with total body fat (P<0.001). None of the other investigated members of the IL-1 gene family displayed any SNPs that have not been described previously to be significantly associated with body fat.Conclusions:The IL1RN gene, shown to enhance obesity by suppressing IL-1 effects in experimental animals, have no previously described gene polymorphisms and haplotypes that are associated with fat, but not lean mass in two populations of men.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 17 March 2009; doi:10.1038/ijo.2009.47.
  • Eriksson, Anna-Lena, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • SHBG gene promoter polymorphisms in men are associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin, androgen and androgen metabolite levels, and hip bone mineral density.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 91:12, s. 5029-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: SHBG regulates free sex steroid levels, which in turn regulate skeletal homeostasis. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors largely account for interindividual variation in SHBG levels. Glucuronidated androgen metabolites have been proposed as markers of androgenic activity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SHBG gene promoter [(TAAAA)(n) microsatellite and rs1799941 single-nucleotide polymorphism] are associated with serum levels of SHBG, sex steroids, or bone mineral density (BMD) in men. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two cohorts of Swedish men: elderly men (MrOS Sweden; n congruent with 3000; average age, 75.4 yr) and young adult men (GOOD study; n = 1068; average age, 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured serum levels of SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides, androsterone glucuronide, and BMD determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: In both cohorts, (TAAAA)(n) and rs1799941 genotypes were associated with serum levels of SHBG (P < 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P < 0.05), and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides (P < 0.05). In the elderly men, they were also associated with testosterone and BMD at all hip bone sites. The genotype associated with high levels of SHBG was also associated with high BMD. Interestingly, male mice overexpressing human SHBG had increased cortical bone mineral content in the femur, suggesting that elevated SHBG levels may cause increased bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in the SHBG promoter predict serum levels of SHBG, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites, and hip BMD in men.
  • Andersson, Niklas, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • A variant near the interleukin-6 gene is associated with fat mass in Caucasian men
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 34:6, s. 1011-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Regulation of fat mass appears to be associated with immune functions. Studies of knockout mice show that endogenous interleukin (IL)-6 can suppress mature-onset obesity. OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the IL-6 (IL6) and IL-6 receptor (IL6R) genes with body fat mass, in support for our hypothesis that variants of these genes can be associated with obesity. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: The Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study is a population-based cross-sectional study of 18- to 20-year-old men (n=1049), from the Gothenburg area (Sweden). Major findings were confirmed in two additional cohorts consisting of elderly men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden (n=2851) and MrOS US (n=5611) multicenter population-based studies. MAIN OUTCOME: The genotype distributions and their association with fat mass in different compartments, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Out of 18 evaluated tag SNPs near the IL6 and IL6R genes, a recently identified SNP rs10242595 G/A (minor allele frequency=29%) 3' of the IL6 gene was negatively associated with the primary outcome total body fat mass (effect size -0.11 standard deviation (s.d.) units per A allele, P=0.02). This negative association with fat mass was also confirmed in the combined MrOS Sweden and MrOS US cohorts (effect size -0.05 s.d. units per A allele, P=0.002). When all three cohorts were combined (n=8927, Caucasian subjects), rs10242595(*)A showed a negative association with total body fat mass (effect size -0.05 s.d. units per A allele, P<0.0002). Furthermore, the rs10242595(*)A was associated with low body mass index (effect size -0.03, P<0.001) and smaller regional fat masses. None of the other SNPs investigated in the GOOD study were reproducibly associated with body fat. CONCLUSIONS: The IL6 gene polymorphism rs10242595(*)A is associated with decreased fat mass in three combined cohorts of 8927 Caucasian men.
  • Axelsson, K. F., et al. (författare)
  • Hip fracture risk and safety with alendronate treatment in the oldest-old
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 282:6, s. 546-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate's efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score matching (four to one) was then used to identify 7844 controls to 1961 alendronate-treated patients. The risk of incident hip fracture was investigated with Cox models and the interaction between age and treatment was investigated using an interaction term. Results. The case and control groups were well balanced in regard to age, sex, anthropometrics and comorbidity. Alendronate treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in crude (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.49-0.79), P < 0.001) and multivariable models (HR 0.66 (0.51-0.86), P < 0.01). Alendronate was related to reduced mortality risk (HR 0.88 (0.82-0.95) but increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI) (HR 1.58 (1.12-2.24). The alendronate association did not change with age for hip fractures or mild UGI. Conclusion. In old patients with prior fracture, alendronate treatment reduces the risk of hip fracture with sustained safety, indicating that this treatment should be considered in these high-risk patients.
  • Lewerin, Catharina, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • High plasma osteocalcin is associated with low blood haemoglobin in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 280:4, s. 398-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that osteoblasts are involved in the regulation of haematopoietic stem cells. Whether osteocalcin, which is derived from osteoblasts and is metabolically active, influences blood haemoglobin (Hb) levels is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether plasma osteocalcin is a determinant of Hb in elderly men. METHODS: A total of 993 men (mean age 75.3 +/- 3.2 years) participated in the population-based MrOS (osteoporotic fractures in men) study. Plasma osteocalcin concentration was evaluated in relation to Hb and adjustments were made for potential confounders (i.e. age, body mass index, erythropoietin, total oestradiol, fasting insulin, adiponectin, ferritin and cystatin C). RESULTS: Hb correlated (age adjusted) negatively with osteocalcin in the total study group (r = -0.12, P < 0.001) as well as in the subgroup of nondiabetic men (r = -0.16, P < 0.001). In nondiabetic men with higher osteocalcin levels, it was more likely that Hb would be in the lowest quartile (odds ratio per SD decrease in osteocalcin 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.53). Quartiles of Hb were negatively associated (age adjusted) with osteocalcin (P < 0.001). Anaemic men (47/812) (Hb <130 g L-1 ) had significantly higher mean osteocalcin levels than nonanaemic men (33.9 vs. 27.1 mug L-1 , P < 0.001). In multiple stepwise linear regression analyses (adjusted for age, body mass index, total oestradiol, adiponectin, erythropoietin, fasting insulin, cystatin C, leptin, ferritin and holotranscobalamin), osteocalcin was an independent predictor of Hb concentration in nondiabetic men (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data add further support to the evidence indicating that the bone-specific protein osteocalcin has several endocrine functions targeting the pancreas, testes, adipocytes, brain. An additional novel finding is that osteocalcin may also have a paracrine function as a regulator of haematopoiesis.
  • Nilsson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 19:11, s. 1557-1566
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n = 498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD). We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed. Introduction Physical activity (PA) increases bone mineral density (BMD) during growth. It is unclear if the positive effects remain at old age. In this study, we aimed to determine if PA early in life was associated with BMD in elderly men. Methods In this population-based study, 498 men, 75.2 +/- .3 (mean +/- SD) years old, were included. BMD was assessed using DXA. Data concerning lifetime PA, including both competitive (CS) and recreational sports (RS), and occupational physical load (OPL), were collected at interview. Results Subjects in the highest frequency group of CS in the early period (10-35 years), had higher BMD at the total body (4.2%, p < 0.01), total hip (7.0%, p < 0.01), trochanter (8.7%, p < 0.01), and lumbar spine (7.9%, p < 0.01), than subjects not involved in CS. A stepwise linear regression model showed that frequency of CS in the early period independently positively predicted present BMD at the total body (beta=0.12, p < 0.01), total hip (beta=0.11, p < 0.01), trochanter (beta=0.12, p < 0.01), and lumbar spine (beta=0.11, p=0.01). Conclusions We demonstrate that PA in CS early in life is associated with BMD in 75-year-old Swedish men, indicating that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.
  • Axelsson, K. F., et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of a minimal resource fracture liaison service
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 27:11, s. 3165-3175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a 2-year intervention with a minimal resource fracture liaison service (FLS) was associated with increased investigation and medical treatment and if treatment was related to reduced re-fracture risk.METHODS: The FLS started in 2013 using existing secretaries (without an FLS coordinator) at the emergency department and orthopaedic wards to identify risk patients. All patients older than 50 years of age with a fractured hip, vertebra, shoulder, wrist or pelvis were followed during 2013-2014 (n = 2713) and compared with their historic counterparts in 2011-2012 (n = 2616) at the same hospital. Re-fractures were X-ray verified. A time-dependent adjusted (for age, sex, previous fracture, index fracture type, prevalent treatment, comorbidity and secondary osteoporosis) Cox model was used.RESULTS: The minimal resource FLS increased the proportion of DXA-investigated patients after fracture from 7.6 to 39.6 % (p < 0.001) and the treatment rate after fracture from 12.6 to 31.8 %, which is well in line with FLS types using the conventional coordinator model. Treated patients had a 51 % lower risk of any re-fracture than untreated patients (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65 p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: We found that our minimal resource FLS was effective in increasing investigation and treatment, in line with conventional coordinator-based services, and that treated patients had a 51 % reduced risk of new fractures, indicating that also non-coordinator based fracture liaison services can improve secondary prevention of fractures.
  • Borgström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Fragility fractures in Europe: burden, management and opportunities.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Archives of osteoporosis. - 1862-3514. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five countries of the European Union plus Sweden (EU6). In 2017, new fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated at 2.7 million with an associated annual cost of €37.5 billion and a loss of 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years.Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and strength, which increases the risk of fragility fractures, which in turn, represent the main consequence of the disease. This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five EU countries and Sweden (designated the EU6).A series of metrics describing the burden and management of fragility fractures were defined by a scientific steering committee. A working group performed the data collection and analysis. Data were collected from current literature, available retrospective data and public sources. Different methods were applied (e.g. standard statistics and health economic modelling), where appropriate, to perform the analysis for each metric.Total fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated to increase from 2.7 million in 2017 to 3.3 million in 2030; a 23% increase. The resulting annual fracture-related costs (€37.5 billion in 2017) are expected to increase by 27%. An estimated 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were lost in 2017 due to fragility fractures. The current disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 individuals age 50 years or more were estimated at 21 years, which is higher than the estimates for stroke or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The treatment gap (percentage of eligible individuals not receiving treatment with osteoporosis drugs) in the EU6 is estimated to be 73% for women and 63% for men; an increase of 17% since 2010. If all patients who fracture in the EU6 were enrolled into fracture liaison services, at least 19,000 fractures every year might be avoided.Fracture-related burden is expected to increase over the coming decades. Given the substantial treatment gap and proven cost-effectiveness of fracture prevention schemes such as fracture liaison services, urgent action is needed to ensure that all individuals at high risk of fragility fracture are appropriately assessed and treated.
  • Cornelis, M C, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies six novel loci associated with habitual coffee consumption
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 20:5, s. 647-656
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91 462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03-0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10(-8)).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.
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