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  • Axelsson, K. F., et al. (författare)
  • Hip fracture risk and safety with alendronate treatment in the oldest-old
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 282:6, s. 546-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate's efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score matching (four to one) was then used to identify 7844 controls to 1961 alendronate-treated patients. The risk of incident hip fracture was investigated with Cox models and the interaction between age and treatment was investigated using an interaction term. Results. The case and control groups were well balanced in regard to age, sex, anthropometrics and comorbidity. Alendronate treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in crude (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.49-0.79), P < 0.001) and multivariable models (HR 0.66 (0.51-0.86), P < 0.01). Alendronate was related to reduced mortality risk (HR 0.88 (0.82-0.95) but increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI) (HR 1.58 (1.12-2.24). The alendronate association did not change with age for hip fractures or mild UGI. Conclusion. In old patients with prior fracture, alendronate treatment reduces the risk of hip fracture with sustained safety, indicating that this treatment should be considered in these high-risk patients.
  • Borgström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Fragility fractures in Europe: burden, management and opportunities.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Archives of osteoporosis. - 1862-3514. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five countries of the European Union plus Sweden (EU6). In 2017, new fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated at 2.7 million with an associated annual cost of €37.5 billion and a loss of 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years.Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and strength, which increases the risk of fragility fractures, which in turn, represent the main consequence of the disease. This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five EU countries and Sweden (designated the EU6).A series of metrics describing the burden and management of fragility fractures were defined by a scientific steering committee. A working group performed the data collection and analysis. Data were collected from current literature, available retrospective data and public sources. Different methods were applied (e.g. standard statistics and health economic modelling), where appropriate, to perform the analysis for each metric.Total fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated to increase from 2.7 million in 2017 to 3.3 million in 2030; a 23% increase. The resulting annual fracture-related costs (€37.5 billion in 2017) are expected to increase by 27%. An estimated 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were lost in 2017 due to fragility fractures. The current disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 individuals age 50 years or more were estimated at 21 years, which is higher than the estimates for stroke or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The treatment gap (percentage of eligible individuals not receiving treatment with osteoporosis drugs) in the EU6 is estimated to be 73% for women and 63% for men; an increase of 17% since 2010. If all patients who fracture in the EU6 were enrolled into fracture liaison services, at least 19,000 fractures every year might be avoided.Fracture-related burden is expected to increase over the coming decades. Given the substantial treatment gap and proven cost-effectiveness of fracture prevention schemes such as fracture liaison services, urgent action is needed to ensure that all individuals at high risk of fragility fracture are appropriately assessed and treated.
  • Graff, Mariaelisa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity. A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genet. - 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.
  • Greenhalgh, Christopher J, et al. (författare)
  • SOCS2 negatively regulates growth hormone action in vitro and in vivo.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 0021-9738. ; 115:2, s. 397-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mice deficient in SOCS2 display an excessive growth phenotype characterized by a 30-50% increase in mature body size. Here we show that the SOCS2-/- phenotype is dependent upon the presence of endogenous growth hormone (GH) and that treatment with exogenous GH induced excessive growth in mice lacking both endogenous GH and SOCS2. This was reflected in terms of overall body weight, body and bone lengths, and the weight of internal organs and tissues. A heightened response to GH was also measured by examining GH-responsive genes expressed in the liver after exogenous GH administration. To further understand the link between SOCS2 and the GH-signaling cascade, we investigated the nature of these interactions using structure/function and biochemical interaction studies. Analysis of the 3 structural motifs of the SOCS2 molecule revealed that each plays a crucial role in SOCS2 function, with the conserved SOCS-box motif being essential for all inhibitory function. SOCS2 was found to bind 2 phosphorylated tyrosines on the GH receptor, and mutational analysis of these amino acids showed that both were essential for SOCS2 function. Together, the data provide clear evidence that SOCS2 is a negative regulator of GH signaling.
  • Hulthén, Lena, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Salt intake in young Swedish men.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Public health nutrition. - 1475-2727. ; 13:5, s. 601-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To measure dietary salt intake in a Swedish population. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study with measured 24 h urinary excretion of Na and K. Completeness of urine collection was assessed using p-aminobenzoic acid. The subjects were interviewed on their habitual food intake. SETTING: Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Eighty-six young men (age 18-20 years), randomly selected from the population of Gothenburg. Seven men were excluded due to incomplete urine collection. RESULTS: The mean excretion of Na and K over 24 h was 198 and 84 mmol, respectively (corresponding to 11.5 g NaCl and 3.3 g K). The mean 24 h excretion in the highest quartile of Na excretion was 297 mmol Na and 105 mmol K, and in the lowest quartile, 100 mmol Na and 68 mmol K. The mean Na:K ratio was 2.3, and respectively 3.2 and 1.8 in the highest and lowest Na excretion quartiles. Calculated energy intake did not differ between the highest and lowest quartiles of Na excretion, but body weight, BMI and the intake of certain foods known to be Na-rich did. CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake in young men was alarming high and even subjects in the lowest quartile of Na excretion did not meet present recommendations to limit salt intake to 5-6 g/d. At this point we can only speculate what the consequences of the high salt intake may be for CVD and stroke later in life. Regulation of the salt content in processed and fast food and in snacks is advocated, to curtail the salt burden on society imposed by the food industry.
  • Jakobsson, J, et al. (författare)
  • A novel polymorphism in the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (aldo-keto reductase 1C3) gene is associated with lower serum testosterone levels in caucasian men.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The pharmacogenomics journal. - 1470-269X. ; 7:4, s. 282-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic variation in the androgen metabolizing enzymes is important to identify and feature as they may influence the risk of prostate cancer and help clarify the etiology of the disease. Human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (AKR1C3) is highly expressed in the prostate gland and plays a major role in the formation and metabolism of androgens. We identified five novel polymorphisms in the AKR1C3 gene. One of those an A>G substitution in exon 2 that confers a Glu77Gly change occurred in 4.8% in Caucasians but was completely absent in Orientals. Interestingly, the testosterone level in serum was significantly lower in subjects with the Gly77 allele. A promoter A>G polymorphism was associated with significantly altered promoter activity in reporter constructs, but was not associated with any change in testosterone levels. In conclusion, the Glu77Gly polymorphism is associated with lower testosterone levels in serum.
  • Jakobsson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Large differences in testosterone excretion in Korean and Swedish men are strongly associated with a UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B17 polymorphism.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 91:2, s. 687-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: The reproductive endocrinology in Asians and Caucasians is of great interest in view of large differences in prostate cancer rate and sensitivity to pharmacological male contraception. In addition, interpretation of certain antidoping tests is confounded by interethnic variation in androgen disposition. Uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases have a key role in the homeostasis and metabolism of androgens. Recently a deletion polymorphism was detected in the UGT2B17 gene. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the contribution of the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism to the interindividual and interethnic variation of androgen metabolism and excretion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Urine from 122 Swedish and 74 Korean healthy men was analyzed for several androgen glucuronides including testosterone. The distribution of the natural logarithms of urinary testosterone concentrations showed a distinct bimodal pattern in both groups, suggesting a monogenic inheritance. When the UGT2B17 genotypes were compared with urinary testosterone levels, all of the individuals of the UGT2B17 homozygous deletion/deletion genotype had no or negligible amounts of urinary testosterone. The deletion/deletion genotype was seven times more common in the Korean (66.7%) than the Swedish population (9.3%). In addition, the Swedes had significantly higher levels of serum testosterone, compared with the Koreans. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the UGT2B17 polymorphism is strongly associated with the bimodal distribution of the testosterone excretion and also with the large differences in testosterone excretion between Koreans and Swedes.
  • Jiang, X., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study in 79,366 European-ancestry individuals informs the genetic architecture of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7x10(-9) at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9x10(-14) at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • Justice, A. E., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of 241,258 adults accounting for smoking behaviour identifies novel loci for obesity traits
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for environmental exposures, like smoking, potentially impacting the overall trait variance when investigating the genetic contribution to obesity-related traits. Here, we use GWAS data from 51,080 current smokers and 190,178 nonsmokers (87% European descent) to identify loci influencing BMI and central adiposity, measured as waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio both adjusted for BMI. We identify 23 novel genetic loci, and 9 loci with convincing evidence of gene-smoking interaction (GxSMK) on obesity-related traits. We show consistent direction of effect for all identified loci and significance for 18 novel and for 5 interaction loci in an independent study sample. These loci highlight novel biological functions, including response to oxidative stress, addictive behaviour, and regulatory functions emphasizing the importance of accounting for environment in genetic analyses. Our results suggest that tobacco smoking may alter the genetic susceptibility to overall adiposity and body fat distribution.
  • Lorentzon, Mattias, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Free testosterone is a positive, whereas free estradiol is a negative, predictor of cortical bone size in young Swedish men: the GOOD study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431. ; 20:8, s. 1334-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we evaluated the predictive roles of sex steroids for skeletal parameters in young men (n = 1068) at the age of peak bone mass. Serum free estradiol was a negative predictor, whereas free testosterone and SHBG were positive predictors of cortical bone size. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that free estradiol in serum is an independent predictor of areal BMD (aBMD) in elderly men. The aim of this study was to determine whether sex steroids are predictors of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and/or size of the trabecular and cortical bone compartments in young men at the age of peak bone mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study consists of 1068 men, 18.9 +/- 0.6 years of age. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured, and free levels of testosterone and estradiol were calculated. The size of the cortical bone and the cortical and trabecular vBMDs were measured by pQCT. RESULTS: Regression models including age, height, weight, free estradiol, and free testosterone showed that free estradiol was an independent negative predictor of cortical cross-sectional area (tibia beta = -0.111, p
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