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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Lucas Gavin) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Lucas Gavin)

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1.
  • Assimes, Themistocles L., et al. (författare)
  • Lack of Association Between the Trp719Arg Polymorphism in Kinesin-Like Protein-6 and Coronary Artery Disease in 19 Case-Control Studies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - Elsevier USA. - 0735-1097. ; 56:19, s. 1552-1563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455), and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with noncarriers. Methods The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in 19 case-control studies of nonfatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports. Results A total of 17,000 cases and 39,369 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the 19 studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with noncarriers. Regression analyses and fixed-effects meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of >= 2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early-onset disease (younger than 50 years of age for men and younger than 60 years of age for women) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups. Conclusions The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;56:1552-63) (C) 2010 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
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2.
  • Beck, Anna Severine, et al. (författare)
  • Will there be a next Nordic TAG? Reflections on theoretical archaeology in the Nordic countries today
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arkæologisk Forum. - 1399-5545. ; :41, s. 17-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The first meeting in Nordic Theoretical Archaeology Group (Nordic TAG) was held in 1985. The – so far – last meeting in Nordic TAG was held in Copenhagen in 2015. At this meeting, the theme was “the Next 30 years in Theoretical Archaeology” – or in other words the aim wasto discussin which direction theories in the archaeological discipline will develop and especially what new theories, methodologies and perspectives might influence the field in the future. Tragicomically – or prophetically – no meetings have been organized since then. Now almost five years later we must ask: what is the future of Nordic TAG, and what does the lack of it tell us about the development of theoretical archaeology in the Nordic countries today?
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3.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 478:7367, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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4.
  • Elosua, Roberto, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic heart disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - American Heart Association. - 1942-325X. ; 9:3, s. 279-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Cardiovascular risk factors tend to aggregate. The biological and predictive value of this aggregation is questioned and genetics could shed light on this debate. Our aims were to reappraise the impact of risk factor confluence on ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk by testing whether genetic risk scores (GRSs) associated with these factors interact on an additive or multiplicative scale, and to determine whether these interactions provide additional value for predicting IHD risk. Methods and Results - We selected genetic variants associated with blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, type-2 diabetes mellitus, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and IHD to create GRSs for each factor. We tested and meta-analyzed the impact of additive (synergy index) and multiplicative (β interaction) interactions between each GRS pair in 1 case-control (n=6042) and 4 cohort studies (n=17 794) and evaluated the predictive value of these interactions. We observed 2 multiplicative interactions: GRS LDL ·GRS Triglycerides (β interaction =-0.096; SE=0.028) and nonpleiotropic GRS IHD ·GRS LDL (β interaction =0.091; SE=0.028). Inclusion of these interaction terms did not improve predictive capacity. Conclusions - The confluence of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides genetic risk load has an additive effect on IHD risk. The interaction between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and IHD genetic load is more than multiplicative, supporting the hazardous impact on atherosclerosis progression of the combination of inflammation and increased lipid levels. The capacity of risk factor confluence to improve IHD risk prediction is questionable. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to confirm and expand our results.
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5.
  • Furberg, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:5, s. 134-441
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior1,2. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], b = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, beta = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], b = 0.367, s. e. = 0.059, beta = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], b = 0.446, s. e. = 0.074, beta = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], b = 0.333, s. e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.
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6.
  • Júlíusson, Árni Daníel, et al. (författare)
  • Episcopal Economics : Property and Power in Post-Reformation Iceland
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of History. - Routledge. - 0346-8755 .- 1502-7716. ; 45:1, s. 95-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been common to view the Icelandic economy either from the perspective of the individual farm in terms of its productivity or at the national scale in terms of trade and the role of imports/exports. Given the fact that the economy was largely a tenant-based system with a small number of landowners, there is an important middle ground between the household economics of individual farms and the state-sanctioned trade structures that needs to be explored. The objective of this paper is to examine this middle ground and the way the economy was structured in relation to property ownership and tenancy using the case study of the bishopric of Skálholt during the 17th and 18th centuries. Adopting a modified system of provision approach, three scales of analysis are adopted: the settlement itself, the immediate environs and finally the wider regional property network. Tracing the connections outward at successive scales reveals the complex nature of the economic infrastructure behind one of the largest landowners in Iceland at this time.
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7.
  • Lucas, Gavin, et al. (författare)
  • Hypothesis-Based Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions and Risk of Myocardial Infarction
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 7:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic loci that have been found by genome-wide association studies to modulate risk of coronary heart disease explain only a fraction of its total variance, and gene-gene interactions have been proposed as a potential source of the remaining heritability. Given the potentially large testing burden, we sought to enrich our search space with real interactions by analyzing variants that may be more likely to interact on the basis of two distinct hypotheses: a biological hypothesis, under which MI risk is modulated by interactions between variants that are known to be relevant for its risk factors; and a statistical hypothesis, under which interacting variants individually show weak marginal association with MI. In a discovery sample of 2,967 cases of early-onset myocardial infarction (MI) and 3,075 controls from the MIGen study, we performed pair-wise SNP interaction testing using a logistic regression framework. Despite having reasonable power to detect interaction effects of plausible magnitudes, we observed no statistically significant evidence of interaction under these hypotheses, and no clear consistency between the top results in our discovery sample and those in a large validation sample of 1,766 cases of coronary heart disease and 2,938 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium. Our results do not support the existence of strong interaction effects as a common risk factor for MI. Within the scope of the hypotheses we have explored, this study places a modest upper limit on the magnitude that epistatic risk effects are likely to have at the population level (odds ratio for MI risk 1.3-2.0, depending on allele frequency and interaction model).
8.
  • Lucas, Gavin, et al. (författare)
  • Post-Genomic Update on a Classical Candidate Gene for Coronary Artery Disease: ESR1
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - American Heart Association. - 1942-325X. ; 4:6, s. 357-647
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-After age, sex is the most important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The mechanism through which women are protected from CAD is still largely unknown, but the observed sex difference suggests the involvement of the reproductive steroid hormone signaling system. Genetic association studies of the gene-encoding Estrogen Receptor alpha (ESR1) have shown conflicting results, although only a limited range of variation in the gene has been investigated. Methods and Results-We exploited information made available by advanced new methods and resources in complex disease genetics to revisit the question of ESR1's role in risk of CAD. We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies (CARDIoGRAM discovery analysis, N = approximate to 87 000) to search for population-wide and sex-specific associations between CAD risk and common genetic variants throughout the coding, noncoding, and flanking regions of ESR1. In addition to samples from the MIGen (N = approximate to 6000), WTCCC (N = approximate to 7400), and Framingham (N = approximate to 3700) studies, we extended this search to a larger number of common and uncommon variants by imputation into a panel of haplotypes constructed using data from the 1000 Genomes Project. Despite the widespread expression of ER alpha in vascular tissues, we found no evidence for involvement of common or low-frequency genetic variation throughout the ESR1 gene in modifying risk of CAD, either in the general population or as a function of sex. Conclusions-We suggest that future research on the genetic basis of sex-related differences in CAD risk should initially prioritize other genes in the reproductive steroid hormone biosynthesis system. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2011;4:647-654.)
9.
  • Newton-Cheh, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 41:6, s. 666-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N <= 71,225 European ancestry, N <= 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 x 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 x 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 x 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 x 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 x 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 x 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 x 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 x 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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10.
  • Padmanabhan, Sandosh, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Extremes Identifies Variant near UMOD Associated with Hypertension
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension is a heritable and major contributor to the global burden of disease. The sum of rare and common genetic variants robustly identified so far explain only 1%-2% of the population variation in BP and hypertension. This suggests the existence of more undiscovered common variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,621 hypertensive cases and 1,699 controls and follow-up validation analyses in 19,845 cases and 16,541 controls using an extreme case-control design. We identified a locus on chromosome 16 in the 59 region of Uromodulin (UMOD; rs13333226, combined P value of 3.6x10(-11)). The minor G allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.84-0.91]), reduced urinary uromodulin excretion, better renal function; and each copy of the G allele is associated with a 7.7% reduction in risk of CVD events after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status (H.R. = 0.923, 95% CI 0.860-0.991; p = 0.027). In a subset of 13,446 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, we show that rs13333226 is independently associated with hypertension (unadjusted for eGFR: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.004; after eGFR adjustment: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.003). In clinical functional studies, we also consistently show the minor G allele is associated with lower urinary uromodulin excretion. The exclusive expression of uromodulin in the thick portion of the ascending limb of Henle suggests a putative role of this variant in hypertension through an effect on sodium homeostasis. The newly discovered UMOD locus for hypertension has the potential to give new insights into the role of uromodulin in BP regulation and to identify novel drugable targets for reducing cardiovascular risk.
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