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  • Shrestha, S., et al. (författare)
  • The use of ICD codes to identify IBD subtypes and phenotypes of the Montreal classification in the Swedish National Patient Register
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 55:4, s. 430-435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Whether data on International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-codes from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) correctly correspond to subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and phenotypes of the Montreal classification scheme among patients with prevalent disease is unknown. Materials and methods: We obtained information on IBD subtypes and phenotypes from the medical records of 1403 patients with known IBD who underwent biological treatment at ten Swedish hospitals and retrieved information on their IBD-associated diagnostic codes from the NPR. We used previously described algorithms to define IBD subtypes and phenotypes. Finally, we compared these register-generated subtypes and phenotypes with the corresponding information from the medical records and calculated positive predictive values (PPV) with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Among patients with clinically confirmed disease and diagnostic listings of IBD in the NPR (N = 1401), the PPV was 97 (96-99)% for Crohn's disease, 98 (97-100)% for ulcerative colitis, and 8 (4-11)% for IBD-unclassified. The overall accuracy for age at diagnosis was 95% (when defined as A1, A2, or A3). Examining the validity of codes representing disease phenotype, the PPV was 36 (32-40)% for colonic Crohn's disease (L2), 61 (56-65)% for non-stricturing/non-penetrating Crohn's disease behaviour (B1) and 83 (78-87)% for perianal disease. Correspondingly, the PPV was 80 (71-89)% for proctitis (E1)/left-sided colitis (E2) in ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Among people with known IBD, the NPR is a reliable source of data to classify most subtypes of prevalent IBD, even though misclassification commonly occurred in Crohn's disease location and behaviour and also among IBD-unclassified patients.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy Outcome in Women Undergoing Liver Biopsy During Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1527-3350 .- 0270-9139. ; 68:2, s. 625-633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Liver biopsy is an important procedure in the investigation of liver disease. We examined pregnancy outcomes in women who underwent liver biopsy during pregnancy. In a nationwide population-based cohort study we linked data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births between 1992 and 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 23 pregnancies exposed to liver biopsy. We calculated relative risks (RRs) for adverse pregnancy outcomes according to liver biopsy status using 1,953,887 unexposed pregnancies with and without a record of liver disease as reference. Our main outcome measures were stillbirth and preterm birth. There were no stillbirths in pregnancies exposed to liver biopsies compared with 0.3% stillbirths in unexposed pregnancies. 3/23 (13%) exposed pregnancies were preterm (RR=2.6; 95%CI=0.9-7.5). Compared with women with a record of liver disease, preterm birth was not increased in those exposed to liver biopsy (RR=0.9; 95%CI=0.1-6.0). Except for an increased risk of small for gestational age birth in pregnancies exposed to liver biopsy (RR=5.2; 95%CI=1.8-14.8), other adverse pregnancy outcomes were independent of liver biopsy status when the analysis was restricted to women with a diagnosis of liver disease. Compared with unexposed sibling pregnancies, pregnancies with a liver biopsy were 7 days shorter, but birth weights did not differ between the siblings (-67g; p>0.05).Apart from a moderately increased risk of preterm birth and small for gestational age, there was no association between liver biopsy during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome. Potential excess risks should be weighed against the advantages of having a liver biopsy that may influence clinical management of the patient indirectly influencing fetal health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, prevalence, and outcome of primary biliary cholangitis in a nationwide Swedish population-based cohort.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Available epidemiological data on primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in Sweden originate from regional studies in the 1980s and may not reflect modern day PBC. We aimed to estimate incidence and prevalence, survival and death causes, and gender differences in PBC. We used international classification of disease (ICD) codes to identify patients with PBC in inpatient and outpatient registries 1987-2014 who were then linked to the Swedish cause of death, cancer and prescribed drug registries. Each PBC patient was matched with 10 reference individuals from the general population. In sensitivity analyses, we examined PBC patients identified through clinical patient records from Karolinska, Sahlgrenska and Örebro University Hospitals. We identified 5,350 adults with PBC. Prevalence of PBC increased steadily from 5.0 (1987) to 34.6 (2014) per 100,000 inhabitants whereas the yearly incidence rate was relatively constant with a median of 2.6 per 100,000 person-years, with a female:male gender ratio of 4:1. Compared to reference individuals, PBC individuals aged 15-39 years at diagnosis had a substantially higher risk of death (Hazard Ratio [HR] 12.7, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 8.3-19.5) than those diagnosed between 40-59 (HR 4.1, 95% CI 3.7-4.5) and >60 (HR 3.7, 95% CI 3.5-3.9) years of age. Relative risks of mortality were highest in men. In conclusion, we found that recorded prevalence of PBC in Sweden has increased substantially during the last 30 years although incidence has been stable. Patients diagnosed in young adulthood were at a 12.7-fold increased risk of death, and male PBC patients had worse prognosis.
  • Emilsson, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 29 000 patients with celiac disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - Hoboken, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 1:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a rare disease of largely unknown origin. Previous studies have suggested an increased prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in patients with DCM. These studies, however, were based on a maximum of 5 patients with both CD and DCM. In the present large Swedish population-based cohort study, we examined the risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with CD determined by small-intestinal histopathology.Methods and Results: From 2006 to 2008, we collected duodenal/jejunal biopsy data on CD (equal to villous atrophy, Marsh stage 3, n=29 071 unique individuals) from (all) 28 pathology departments in Sweden. These individuals were compared with 144 429 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county. Data on DCM were obtained through the National Patient Register and confirmed by patient charts and echocardiography data. During follow-up, 17 patients with CD and 52 reference individuals developed idiopathic DCM. Thus, patients with CD were at an increased risk of idiopathic DCM (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 3.00), although the risk estimate failed to attain statistical significance (P=0.052).Conclusion: This nationwide study found a moderately but not statistically significantly increased risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with biopsy-verified CD.
  • Hagstrom, H., et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes of Pregnancy in Mothers With Cirrhosis: A National Population-Based Cohort Study of 1.3 Million Pregnancies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hepatology Communications. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2471-254X. ; 2:11, s. 1299-1305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are limited data on pregnancy outcomes in women with cirrhosis. To address this gap, we examined the records of singleton births from Sweden's National Patient Register (NPR), Cause of Death Register (CDR), and Medical Birth Register (MBR) between 1997 and 2011 to assess exposure and pregnancy-related and liver-related outcomes of pregnant women with cirrhosis. Exposure status was defined as having an International Classification of Diseases (ICU) code for cirrhosis obtained prior to or during pregnancy. Poisson regression with cluster-robust standard errors was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for maternal age, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). We identified 103 pregnancies in women with cirrhosis and compared these to 1,361,566 pregnancies in women without cirrhosis. Pregnancies in women with cirrhosis were at increased risk of caesarean delivery (36% versus 16%, respectively; adjusted RR [aRR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-2.73), low birth weight (15% versus 3%; aRR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.11-7.06), and preterm delivery (19% versus 5%; aRR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.16-5.72). Rates of maternal mortality during pregnancy (no cases), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, congenital malformations, and stillbirth were not increased when compared to the pregnant women without cirrhosis. There were 12 hospitalizations during pregnancy due to liver-related events, including one case with bleeding esophageal varices. Conclusion: Women with cirrhosis are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, severe maternal and fetal adverse events were rare in our study, and most pregnancies in women with cirrhosis ended without complications.
  • Ludvigsson, J. F., et al. (författare)
  • Periconception glycaemic control in women with type 1 diabetes and risk of major birth defects: population based cohort study in Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1756-1833. ; 362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal type 1 diabetes and the risk of major birth defects according to levels of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) within three months before or after estimated conception. Population based historical cohort study using nationwide health registers. 2458 singleton liveborn infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes and a glycated haemoglobin measurement within three months before or after estimated conception and 1 159 865 infants of mothers without diabetes. Major cardiac and non-cardiac birth defects according to glycated haemoglobin levels. 122 cases of major cardiac defects were observed among 2458 infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes. Compared with 15 cases of major cardiac defects per 1000 infants of mothers without diabetes, the rates among infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes were 33 per 1000 for a glycated haemoglobin level of <6.5% (adjusted risk ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.37 to 3.42), 49 per 1000 for 6.5% to <7.8% (3.17, 2.45 to 4.11), 44 per 1000 for 7.8% to <9.1% (2.79, 1.90 to 4.12), and 101 per 1000 for >= 9.1% (6.23, 4.32 to 9.00). The corresponding adjusted risk differences were 17 (5 to 36), 32 (21 to 46), 26 (13 to 46), and 77 (49 to 118) cases of major cardiac defects per 1000 infants, respectively. 50 cases of major non-cardiac defects were observed among infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes. Compared with 18 cases of major non-cardiac defects per 1000 infants of mothers without diabetes, the rates among infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes were 22 per 1000 for a glycated haemoglobin level of <6.5% (adjusted risk ratio 1.18, 0.68 to 2.07), 19 per 1000 for 6.5% to <7.8% (1.01, 0.66 to 1.54), 17 per 1000 for 7.8% to <9.1% (0.89, 0.46 to 1.69), and 32 per 1000 for >= 9.1%(1.68, 0.85 to 3.33). Among liveborn infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes, increasingly worse glycaemic control in the three months before or after estimated conception was associated with a progressively increased risk of major cardiac defects. Even with glycated haemoglobin within target levels recommended by guidelines (<6.5%), the risk of major cardiac defects was increased more than twofold. The risk of major non-cardiac defects was not statistically significantly increased at any of the four glycated haemoglobin levels examined; the study had limited statistical power for this outcome and was based on live births only.
  • Mitselou, Niki, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and risk of food allergy : Nationwide Swedish cohort study of more than 1 million children
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 142:5, s. 1510-1514e.2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about early-life risk factors for food allergy in children.Objectives: We examined the association between perinatal characteristics and future risk of food allergy in offspring.Methods: This nationwide Swedish cohort study of 1,086,378 children born in Sweden in 2001-2012 used prospectively recorded data from health care registers. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for the association between perinatal characteristics (eg, cesarean delivery and preterm birth) and food allergy as defined by diagnoses in the National Patient Register, adjusting for infant sex and maternal factors (age at delivery, country of birth, parity, smoking, body mass index, and asthma/pulmonary disease).Results: During the 13-year follow-up, 26,732 (2.5%) children were given a diagnosis of food allergy. Food allergy was positively associated with cesarean delivery (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.18-1.25), large for gestational age (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and low 5-minute Apgar score (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) but negatively associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98). No association was found between food allergy and moderately preterm birth, low birth weight, or small for gestational age. Risk estimates were similar when the outcome was restricted to 2 records of diagnosed food allergy. In 1,000 children undergoing cesarean delivery, an extra 5 developed food allergy compared with the reference group, suggesting that 17% of food allergy in children born by means of cesarean delivery can be explained by this exposure (attributable fraction).Conclusions: Cesarean delivery was associated with increased risk of food allergy, whereas very preterm birth decreased risk.
  • Parikh, Nisha I., et al. (författare)
  • Subfertility and risk of later life maternal cardiovascular disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 27:2, s. 568-575
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Subfertility shares common pathways with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including polycystic ovarian syndrome, obesity and thyroid disorders. Women with prior 0-1 pregnancies are at an increased risk of incident CVD when compared with women with two pregnancies. It is uncertain whether history of subfertility among women eventually giving birth is a risk factor for CVD.METHODS: Among Swedish women with self-reported data on subfertility in the Swedish Medical Birth Register (n = 863 324), we used Cox proportional hazards models to relate a history of subfertility to CVD risk after adjustment for age, birth year, highest income, education, birth country, hypertension, diabetes, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), smoking and for BMI in separate models. In additional analyses, we excluded women with: (i) pregnancy-related or non-pregnancy-related hypertension and/or diabetes; and (ii) preterm births and/or SGA babies.RESULTS: Among nulliparous women eventually having a childbirth (between 1983 and 2005, the median follow-up time 11.9; 0-23 years and 9 906 621 person-years of follow-up), there was an increased risk of CVD among women reporting >= 5 years of subfertility versus 0 years (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.39). There were not significantly elevated CVD risks for women with 1-2 or 3-4 years of subfertility versus 0 years. Accounting for BMI did not change results. Excluding women with hypertension and/or diabetes attenuated associations, whereas exclusion of women with preterm and/or SGA births did not change findings.CONCLUSIONS: Subfertility among women eventually having a childbirth is a risk factor for CVD even upon accounting for cardiovascular risk factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future studies should explore the mechanisms underlying this association.
  • Reilly, Norelle R., et al. (författare)
  • Celiac Disease Does Not Influence Fracture Risk in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 169, s. 49-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To examine the risk of any fractures in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) vs patients with T1D only.Study design: We performed a population-based cohort study. We defined T1D as individuals aged <= 30 years who had a diagnosis of diabetes recorded in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1964 and 2009. Individuals with CD were identified through biopsy report data between 1969 and 2008 from any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Some 958 individuals had both T1D and CD and were matched for sex, age, and calendar period with 4598 reference individuals with T1D only. We then used a stratified Cox regression analysis, where CD was modeled as a time-dependent covariate, to estimate the risk of any fractures and osteoporotic fractures (hip, distal forearm, thoracic and lumbar spine, and proximal humerus) in patients with both T1D and CD compared with that in patients with T1D only.Results: During follow-up, 12 patients with T1D and CD had a fracture (1 osteoporotic fracture). CD did not influence the risk of any fracture (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.42-1.41) or osteoporotic fractures (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.06-3.51) in patients with T1D. Stratification for time since CD diagnosis did not affect risk estimates.Conclusion: Having a diagnosis of CD does not seem to influence fracture risk in young patients with T1D. Follow-up in this study was, however, too short to ascertain osteoporotic fractures which traditionally occur in old age.
  • Röckert Tjernberg, Anna, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Coeliac disease and invasive pneumococcal disease : a population-based cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 145:6, s. 1203-1209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Severe infections are recognized complications of coeliac disease (CD). In the present study we aimed to examine whether individuals with CD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). To do so, we performed a population-based cohort study including 29 012 individuals with biopsy-proven CD identified through biopsy reports from all pathology departments in Sweden. Each individual with CD was matched with up to five controls (n = 144 257). IPD events were identified through regional and national microbiological databases, including the National Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases. We used Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for diagnosed IPD. A total of 207 individuals had a record of IPD whereas 45/29 012 had CD (0.15%) and 162/144 257 were controls (0.11%). This corresponded to a 46% increased risk for IPD [HR 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.03]. The risk estimate was similar after adjustment for socioeconomic status, educational level and comorbidities, but then failed to attain statistical significance (adjusted HR 1.40, 95% CI 0.99-1.97). Nonetheless, our study shows a trend towards an increased risk for IPD in CD patients. The findings support results seen in earlier research and taking that into consideration individuals with CD may be considered for pneumococcal vaccination.
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