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Sökning: WFRF:(Lund Johansen Per)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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2.
  • Leenders, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 131:4, s. 997-1002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (595% range: 2.812.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.111.60]. People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.449.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.0216.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer.
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4.
  • Wibom, Carl, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Proteomic profiles differ between bone invasive and noninvasive benign meningiomas of fibrous and meningothelial subtype
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuro-Oncology. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0167-594X .- 1573-7373. ; 94:3, s. 321-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Meningiomas of WHO grade I can usually be cured by surgical resection. However, some tumors may, despite their benign appearance, display invasive growth behavior. These tumors constitute a difficult clinical problem to handle. By histology alone, bone invasive meningiomas may be indistinguishable from their noninvasive counterparts. In this study we have examined the protein spectra in a series of meningiomas in search of protein expression patterns that may distinguish between bone invasive and noninvasive meningiomas. Tumor tissue from 13 patients with fibrous (6 invasive and 7 noninvasive) and 29 with meningothelial (10 invasive and 19 noninvasive) grade I meningiomas were analyzed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI). Multivariate statistical methods were applied for data analyses. Comparing the protein spectra from invasive and noninvasive fibrous meningioma we found 22 peaks whose intensities were significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001). Based on the expression pattern of these peaks we were able to perfectly separate the two entities (area under ROC curve = 1.0). In meningothelial meningioma the same comparison yielded six significantly differentially expressed peaks (P < 0.001), which to a large degree separated the invasive from noninvasive tissue (area under ROC curve = 0.873). By analyzing the protein spectra in benign meningiomas we could differentiate between invasive and noninvasive growth behavior in both fibrous and meningothelial meningiomas of grade I. A possibility for early identification of invasive grade I meningiomas may have a strong influence on the follow-up policy and the issue of early or late radiotherapy.
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