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  • Haemig, Paul D., et al. (författare)
  • Forecasting risk of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE): Using data from wildlife and climate to predict next year's number of human victims
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 1651-1980 .- 0036-5548. ; 43:5, s. 366-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Over the past quarter century, the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has increased in most European nations. However, the number of humans stricken by the disease varies from year to year. A method for predicting major increases and decreases is needed. Methods: We assembled a 25-y database (1984-2008) of the number of human TBE victims and wildlife and climate data for the Stockholm region of Sweden, and used it to create easy-to-use mathematical models that predict increases and decreases in the number of humans stricken by TBE. Results: Our best model, which uses December precipitation and mink (Neovison vison, formerly Mustela vison) bagging figures, successfully predicted every major increase or decrease in TBE during the past quarter century, with a minimum of false alarms. However, this model was not efficient in predicting small increases and decreases. Conclusions: Predictions from our models can be used to determine when preventive and adaptive programmes should be implemented. For example, in years when the frequency of TBE in humans is predicted to be high, vector control could be intensified where infested ticks have a higher probability of encountering humans, such as at playgrounds, bathing lakes, barbecue areas and camping facilities. Because our models use only wildlife and climate data, they can be used even when the human population is vaccinated. Another advantage is that because our models employ data from previously-established databases, no additional funding for surveillance is required.
  • Haemig, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Red fox and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in humans: Can predators influence public health?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5548 .- 1651-1980. ; 40:6-7, s. 527-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analysing datasets from hunting statistics and human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), we found a positive correlation between the number of human TBE cases and the number of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Time lags were also present, indicating that high numbers of red fox in 1 y translated into high numbers of human TBE cases the following y. Results for smaller predators were mixed and inconsistent. Hares and grouse showed negative correlations with human TBE cases, suggesting that they might function as dilution hosts. Combining our findings with food web dynamics, we hypothesize a diversity of possible interactions between predators and human disease – some predators suppressing a given disease, others enhancing its spread, and still others having no effect at all. Larger-sized predators that suppress red fox numbers and activity (i.e. wolf, Canis lupus; European lynx, Lynx lynx) were once abundant in our study area but have been reduced or extirpated from most parts of it by humans. We ask what would happen to red foxes and TBE rates in humans if these larger predators were restored to their former abundances.Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365540701805446
  • Jourdain, Elsa, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance for West Nile virus in wild birds from northern Europe.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. - 1530-3667 .- 1557-7759. ; 11:1, s. 77-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A total of 1935 migratory birds from 104 different species were captured in southeastern Sweden in 2005-2006 and tested for antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV). Overall, 46 birds (2.4%; binomial confidence limits, 1.8-3.2) were positive by blocking-ELISA, but only 2 (0.10%; binomial confidence limits, 0.0-0.4) had antibodies detectable by both blocking-ELISA and WNV neutralization test. ELISA-positive birds included long- and short-distance migrants likely exposed to WNV while wintering in or migrating through areas enzootic for WNV. Exposure to a cross-reactive Flavivirus was suspected for short-distance migrants of the Turdidae family, but no cross-neutralization with tick-borne encephalitis and Usutu viruses was observed.
  • Järhult, Josef D., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - San Francisco, CA : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC₅₀ for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.
  • Karlsson, M., et al. (författare)
  • A real-time PCR assay for the monitoring of influenza a virus in wild birds
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virological Methods. - 0166-0934 .- 1879-0984. ; 144:1-2, s. 27-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A screening system including a new real-time PCR assay for the monitoring of influenza A virus in wild birds was developed. The real-time PCR assay uses SYBR green chemistry and the primers are targeting the matrix gene of influenza A virus. The performance of the assay was compared with two other assays, one assay also using SYBR green chemistry and one assay using TaqMan chemistry, i.e. a specific probe. A total of 45 fecal bird samples were analysed for influenza A virus in three different PCR reactions. Overall, 26 samples were positive in at least one of the three real-time PCR assays. Of the 26 samples, 18 were positive by all three reactions. Eight samples were found positive exclusively by the two SYBR green reactions, six of which were detected by both SYBR green reactions. Of the 26 positive samples, 15 samples were verified as positive either by virus isolation or influenza A M2-gene PCR. The results showed that the two SYBR green systems had a higher performance regarding the detection of influenza A as compared to the PCR reaction using a specific probe. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • King, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • COVID-19—a very visible pandemic
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 0140-6736. ; 396:10248, s. E15-E15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Nissen, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Long-distance airborne dispersal of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 wards
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2, as well as other coronaviruses, can be dispersed and potentially transmitted by aerosols directly or via ventilation systems. We therefore investigated ventilation openings in one COVID-19 ward and central ducts that expel indoor air from three COVID-19 wards at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, during April and May 2020. Swab samples were taken from individual ceiling ventilation openings and surfaces in central ducts. Samples were subsequently subjected to rRT-PCR targeting the N and E genes of SARS-CoV-2. Central ventilation HEPA filters, located several stories above the wards, were removed and portions analyzed in the same manner. In two subsequent samplings, SARS-CoV-2 N and E genes were detected in seven and four out of 19 room vents, respectively. Central ventilation HEPA exhaust filters from the ward were found positive for both genes in three samples. Corresponding filters from two other, adjacent COVID-19 wards were also found positive. Infective ability of the samples was assessed by inoculation of susceptible cell cultures but could not be determined in these experiments. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in central ventilation systems, distant from patient areas, indicate that virus can be transported long distances and that droplet transmission alone cannot reasonably explain this, especially considering the relatively low air change rates in these wards. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 must be taken into consideration for preventive measures.
  • Nordstrom, H., et al. (författare)
  • DNA microarray technique for detection and identification of seven Flaviviruses pathogenic for man
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Virology. - New York : Alan R. Liss. - 0146-6615 .- 1096-9071. ; 77:4, s. 528-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A flavivirus microarray was developed for detection and identification of yellow fever (YF), West Nile, Japanese encephalitis (JE), and the dengue 1-4 viruses, which are causing severe human disease all over the world. The microarray was based on 500-nucleotide probe fragments from five different parts of the seven viral genomes. A low-stringent amplification method targeting the corresponding regions of the viral genomic RNA was developed and combined with hybridization to the microarray for detection and identification. For distinction of the generated virus-specific fluorescence-patterns a fitting analysis procedure was adapted. The method was verified as functional for all seven flaviviruses and the strategy for the amplification, combined with the long probes, provided a high tolerance for smaller genetic variability, most suitable for these rapidly changing RNA viruses. A potentially high detection and identification capacity was proven on diverged strains of West Nile and dengue viruses. The lower limit for detection was equivalent, or better, when compared to routinely used RT-PCR methods. The performance of the method was verified on human patient samples containing dengue viruses, or normal human serum spiked with YF or JE viruses. The results demonstrated the ability of the flavivirus microarray to screen simultaneously a sample for several viruses in parallel, in combination with a good lower limit of detection.
  • Strand, T. M., et al. (författare)
  • Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. - 1530-3667 .- 1557-7759. ; 15:12, s. 779-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s.
  • Waldenström, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Migrating birds and tickborne encephalitis virus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - 1080-6040 .- 1080-6059. ; 13:8, s. 1215-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During spring and autumn 2001, we screened 13,260 migrating birds at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden, and found 3.4% were infested with ticks. Four birds, each a different passerine species, carried tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV)-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus). Migrating birds may play a role in the geographic dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks.
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