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Sökning: WFRF:(Lykke Mortensen Erik)

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1.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Rohde, Jeanett Friis, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-sectional associations between maternal self-efficacy and dietary intake and physical activity in four-year-old children of first-time Swedish mothers
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Appetite. - : Elsevier. - 0195-6663 .- 1095-8304. ; 125, s. 131-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours are established early in life where children learn by observing their parents. Therefore, parents can act as role models and influence their children toward a healthier lifestyle. Besides a strong association between parental and child health behaviours, parents also influence their children's health behaviours through socio-cognitive processes, where perceived self-efficacy is the central component. The objective was to examine if parental self-efficacy among Swedish mothers was associated with their four-year-old children's dietary and physical activity behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on information from control participants that took part in the Swedish primary prevention trial of childhood obesity (PRIMROSE) (n = 420 mother-child pairs). Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between parental self-efficacy (Parental Self-Efficacy for Promoting Healthy Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in Children Scale) and children's dietary intake (parent reported) and levels of physical activity (accelerometer) with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Mothers' efficacy beliefs in promoting healthy dietary or physical activity behaviours in their children were associated with a slightly higher consumption of fruit and vegetables among their children (β: 0.03 [95%CI: 0.01; 0.04] P < 0.001) and slightly higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous activity (β: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.05; 0.81] P = 0.03). Mothers' belief in their ability to limit unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours was inversely associated with children's intake of unhealthy snacks (β: −0.06 [95%CI: −0.10; −0.02] P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our cross-sectional study suggests weak positive correlations between maternal self-efficacy and healthy dietary and physical activity behaviours, and weak inverse associations between maternal self-efficacy and unhealthy dietary and physical activity behaviours among their children.
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4.
  • Bangsbo, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019 : physical activity and ageing
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine. - London : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0306-3674 .- 1473-0480. ; 53:14, s. 856-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.
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5.
  • Gylling, Anne Theil, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of prolonged strength training upon muscle and fat in healthy and chronically diseased older adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology. - : Elsevier. - 0531-5565 .- 1873-6815. ; 136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Physical muscle function and brain hippocampus size declines with age, accelerating after the age of 60. Strength training over a few months improves physical function, but less is known about how long-term strength training affects physical function and hippocampus volume. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of 1-year strength training of two different intensities upon muscle mass, function, and hippocampus volume in retirement-age individuals.Methods: In this multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02123641), participants were allocated to either a) supervised, heavy resistance training (HRT, n = 149, 3/wk), b) moderate intensity resistance training (MIT, n = 154, 3/wk) or c) non-exercise activities (CON, n = 148). 451 participants were randomized (62-70 yrs., women 61%, approximate to 80% with a chronic medical disease) and 419 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 143, 144 and 132; HRT, MIT and CON). Changes in muscle power (primary outcome), strength and size, physical function, body composition, hippocampus volume and physical/mental well-being were analyzed.Findings: Of the participants (HRT + MIT), 83% completed training at least 2/week. Leg extensor power was unchanged in all groups, but strength training had a positive effect on isometric knee extensor strength in both groups, whereas an increased muscle mass, cross-sectional area of vastus lateralis muscle, a decreased whole-body fat percentage, visceral fat content and an improved mental health (SF-36) occurred in HRT only. Further, chair-stand performance improved in all groups, whereas hippocampus volume decreased in all groups over time with no influence of strength training.Interpretation: Together, the results indicate that leg extensor power did not respond to long-term supervised strength training, but this type of training in a mixed group of healthy and chronically diseased elderly individuals can be implemented with good compliance and induces consistent changes in physiological parameters of muscle strength, muscle mass and abdominal fat.
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6.
  • Jensen, Sanne, et al. (författare)
  • The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale's auxiliary items: Long-term outcome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. - 2211-3649 .- 2211-3657. ; 27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2020 Elsevier Inc. Objective: Standard assessment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients includes ratings of insight, avoidance, indecisiveness, sense of responsibility, pervasive slowness, pathological doubting, and obsession-free intervals. The present study aims to identify pre-treatment associations of these clinical features to symptom severity and symptom dimensions as well as to describe and analyze the long-term levels and distribution in different treatment responder groups. Method: Severity ratings as well as clinical feature ratings were evaluated in 268 pediatric OCD patients using the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) at seven time points before, during, and up to three years after first-line cognitive-behavioral therapy. The CY-BOCS auxiliary items were evaluated on the basis of three symptom severity trajectory classes: acute, slow, and limited responders. Results: Insight, avoidance, pervasive slowness, and obsession-free intervals were positively associated with pre-treatment symptom severity. Symptom dimensions were associated with different auxiliary items. At three-year follow-up, the limited responder class had higher scores than the acute and slow responder classes on all items except for responsibility. Conclusion: The CY-BOCS auxiliary items are closely related to symptom dimensions and partly to symptom severity. The features appear to be dynamic concepts prone to change, yet, less so in patients showing limited long-term treatment response.
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7.
  • Nilsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Disorders in Asperger Syndrome Compared to Schizotypal Disorder : A Clinical Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin. - : Oxford University Press. - 1745-1701. ; 46:1, s. 121-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: There are historical and theoretical indications of a difference in subjective experience between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the schizophrenia spectrum. However, this difference has not been empirically explored. Therefore, to explore potential differences in subjective experience between the 2 spectra, we examined the presence/absence of self-disorders in Asperger syndrome/autism spectrum disorder (As/ASD) compared to schizotypal disorder (Sd). Self-disorders represent changes in basic self-awareness which have been found to accumulate within the schizophrenia spectrum. METHODS: All participants were recruited from clinical units and interviewed with a focus on the exploration of presence/absence of self-disorders, with the Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) scale, and a general assessment of present psychopathology, with Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). RESULTS: A total of 51 participants (As/ASD, n = 22; Sd, n = 29) were included in the statistical analyses. When controlling for age, gender, years of education, mental problems before the age of 16, and special needs school attendance, there was a clear difference in presence/absence of self-disorders between the 2 groups, with significantly higher levels in the Sd group. Further, there was an overlap in SCAN-rated symptoms between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a significant difference between As/ASD and Sd at the level of the basic self, which, in turn, indicates that an exploration of anomalous self-experience is a valuable supplement in the clinical differentiation between As/ASD and Sd.
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8.
  • Thiel Gylling, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Maintenance of muscle strenght following a one-year resistance training program in older adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Experimental Gerontology. - : Elsevier. - 0531-5565 .- 1873-6815. ; 139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Muscle mass, strength and function declines with advancing age. Strength training (ST) improves these parameters in older adults, but the gains often disappear after completion of a short-term intervention. The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mass, -strength and -function one year after the com-pletion of a successful long-term (12 months) supervised ST program in older adults.Method: Men and women (n = 419, age: 62–70 years) completed one year of supervised heavy resistance training (HRT, n = 143) or moderate intensity resistance training (MIT, n = 144) and were compared to a non- exercising control group (CON, n = 132). At 1-year follow-up, 398 participants returned for measurements of muscle power, -strength and -mass, physical function, body composition, hippocampus volume and physical/ mental well-being. The results were compared to pre-training (baseline) and post-training (1-year) values. Further, the participants from the two previous training groups (HRT + MIT, n = 265) were divided into 1) those who on their own continued the ST program (> 9 months) the year after completion of the supervised ST program (CONTIN, n = 65) and 2) those who stopped during the follow-up year (< 9 months) (STOP, n = 200).Results: Out of all the improvements obtained after the 1-year training intervention, only knee extensor muscle strength in HRT was preserved at 1-year follow-up (p  <  0.0001), where muscle strength was 7% higher than baseline. Additionally, the decrease in muscle strength over the second year was lower in CONTIN than in STOP with decreases of 1% and 6%, respectively (p  <  0.05). Only in CONTIN was the muscle strength still higher at 1- year follow-up compared with baseline with a 14% increase (p  <  0.0001). The heavy strength training induced increase in whole-body lean mass was erased at 1-year follow-up. However, there was a tendency for main-tenance of the cross-sectional area of m. vastus lateralis from baseline to 1-year follow-up in HRT compared with CON (p = 0.06). Waist circumference decreased further over the second year in CONTIN, whereas it increased in STOP (p  <  0.05).Conclusion: Even though long-term strength training effectively improved muscle function and other health parameters in older adults, only knee extensor muscle strength was preserved one year after completion of heavy (but not moderate intensity) resistance training. Continuation of strength training resulted in better maintenance of muscle strength and health, which indicates that it is required to continue with physical activity to benefit from the long-term effects of strength training upon muscle function and health in older men and women.
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