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Sökning: WFRF:(Lynch Kristian)

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1.
  • Jensen, R., et al. (författare)
  • Islet cell autoantibody levels after the diagnosis of young adult diabetic patients
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-5491 .- 0742-3071. ; 24:11, s. 1221-1228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The aim was to determine the course of islet cell antibodies [glutamate decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-like islet antigen 2 (IA-2A) and islet cell (ICA)] after the diagnosis of the diabetic patient. Methods The Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS) attempted to prospectively enrol all newly diagnosed diabetic patients aged 15-34 years during 1992 and 1993. C-peptide and autoantibody levels were determined from venous blood samples at diagnosis and again at yearly intervals for 6 years. Results After the first year, the odds of remaining GADA positive decreased by 9% per year [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-0.96] while the mean GADA index remained unchanged (chi(2)(1) = 0.8, P = 0.37). There was no change in the percentage of subjects testing IA-2A positive after the first year (chi(2)(1) = 0.1, P = 0.75). However, the mean index decreased 0.04 per year (95% CI: 0.03-0.05)-a 7.9% decline (95% CI: 5.4-10.4%). The odds of a subject testing positive for ICA decreased by 24% per year (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.70-0.82). The mean ICA levels decreased 0.75 per year (95% CI: 0.66-0.84)-a 16.4% decline (95% CI: 14.1-18.6%). The rate of change in titres for all three autoantibodies was independent of gender, human leucocyte antigen genotype and C-peptide status. Conclusions GADA levels remained high while ICA levels declined. In contrast to a previous study, we found that the proportion of IA-2A subjects remaining positive did not decrease after the first year, while the average index decreased slightly.
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2.
  • Jönsson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • High-titer GAD65 autoantibodies detected in adult diabetes patients using a high efficiency expression vector and cold GAD65 displacement.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934 .- 1607-842X. ; 44, s. 129-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adult type 2 diabetes patients with GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are known as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). It has been suggested that GADA in LADA patients preferentially bind to the N-terminal end of GAD65. Using the N-terminal end extension of (35)S-GAD65 generated by the pEx9 plasmid, we tested the hypothesis that GADA in LADA patients preferentially react with (35)S-GAD65 from the pEx9 plasmid compared to the normal length pThGAD65 plasmid. Healthy control subjects (n = 250) were compared with type 1 (n = 23), type 2 (n = 290), and unspecified (n = 57) diabetes patients. In addition, radio-binding assays for GADA with (35)S-GAD65 generated from both the pEx9 and pThGAD65 plasmids were used in displacement assays with an excess of recombinant human GAD65 (2 mug/mL) to correct for non-specific binding. (35)S-GAD65 produced by either pEx9 or pThGAD65 did not differ in binding among the healthy controls and among the type 1 diabetes patients. Among the type 2 and unspecified patients, there were 4/290 and 3/57 patients, respectively, with binding to the pEx9 but not to the pThGAD65 generated (35)S-GAD65. In the displacement assay, we discovered 14 patients with very high-titer GADA among the type 1 (n = 3, 12,272-29,915 U/mL), type 2 (n = 7; 12,398-334,288 U/mL), and unspecified (n = 4; 20,773-4,053,580 U/mL) patients. All samples were fully displaced following appropriate dilution. We conclude that pThGAD65 is preferred for the coupled in vitro transcription translation of (35)S-GAD65 and that displacement with recombinant GAD65 may detect very high-titer GADA with possible clinical relevance.
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3.
  • Resic-Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends of HLA genotype frequencies of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden from 1986 to 2005 suggest altered risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - : Springer Milan. - 0940-5429 .- 1432-5233. ; 45:4, s. 231-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P \ 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.
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4.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical evidence for the safety of GAD65 immunomodulation in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. - : Elsevier. - 1873-460X .- 1056-8727. ; 19:4, s. 238-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this Phase II study was to evaluate if alum-formulated human recombinant GAD65 is safe and does not compromise beta cell function. The study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation clinical trial in a total of 47 Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) patients who received either placebo or 4, 20, 100, or 500 μg Diamyd subcutaneously at Weeks 1 and 4. Safety evaluations, including neurology, beta cell function tests, diabetes status assessment, hematology, biochemistry, and cellular and humoral immunological markers, were repeatedly assessed over 24 weeks. None of the patients had significant study-related adverse events (AE). Fasting c-peptide levels at 24 weeks were increased compared with placebo (P=.0015) in the 20 μg but not in the other dose groups. In addition, both fasting (P=.0081) and stimulated (P=.0236) c-peptide levels increased from baseline to 24 weeks in the 20 μg dose group. GADA log levels clearly increased (P=.0002) in response to 500 μg Diamyd. The CD4+CD25+/CD4+CD25− cell ratio increased (P=.0128) at 24 weeks in the 20 μg group. No sudden increase in HbA1c or plasma glucose or decrease in beta cell function was observed in any of the dose groups. These positive findings for clinical safety further support the clinical development of Diamyd as a therapeutic to prevent autoimmune diabetes.
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5.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • GAD65 vaccination: 5 years of follow-up in a randomised dose-escalating study in adult-onset autoimmune diabetes.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 52, s. 1363-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether treatment of GAD65 autoantibody (GADA)-positive diabetic patients with alum-formulated recombinant GAD65 (GAD-alum) is safe and does not compromise beta cell function. METHODS: This Phase 2, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation clinical trial, which was randomized through a central office, was performed in 47 GADA-positive type 2 diabetic patients, who received subcutaneous injections of GAD-alum (4 [n = 9], 20 [n = 8], 100 [n = 9] or 500 [n = 8] mug) or placebo (n = 13) at weeks 1 and 4 of the trial. Participants and caregivers were blinded to group assignments. The primary outcome was safety as assessed by neurological tests, medications and beta cell function evaluated over 5 years, representing the end of the trial. RESULTS: No severe study-related adverse events occurred during the 5 year follow-up. None of the dose groups was associated with an increased risk of starting insulin treatment compared with the placebo group. The use of oral hypoglycaemic agents did not differ between the dose groups. After 5 years, fasting C-peptide levels declined in the placebo group (-0.24; 95% CI -0.41 to -0.07 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.01) and the 500 microg dose group (-0.37; 95% CI -0.57 to -0.17 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.003), but not in the 4 microg (-0.10; 95% CI -0.28 to 0.07 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.20), 20 microg (0.04; 95% CI -0.12 to 0.19 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.58) and 100 microg (0.00; 95% CI -0.20 to -0.20 log(10) nmol/l; p = 0.98) dose groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The primary outcome of safety was achieved, since no severe study-related adverse events occurred. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Because the study was initiated before 1 July 2005, the protocol was not registered in a registry. FUNDING: This trial was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers DK26190 and DK53004), the Swedish Research Council (grant number 72X-14064) and Diamyd Therapeutics (Stockholm, Sweden).
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6.
  • Andersson, C, et al. (författare)
  • The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934 .- 1607-842X. ; 44:5, s. 394-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative.Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996–2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes.Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%—a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1*X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA.Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1*X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.
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7.
  • Jensen, Richard A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple factors affect the loss of measurable C-peptide over 6 years in newly diagnosed 15- to 35-year-old diabetic subjects
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. - : Elsevier. - 1873-460X .- 1056-8727. ; 21:4, s. 205-213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for the loss of measurable plasma C-peptide in newly diagnosed 15- to 35-year-old diabetic subjects. Methods: This Swedish study included 778 subjects. C-peptide levels were obtained each year for 6 years after diagnosis. Loss of measurable C-peptide was defined as a level at or below the lower detection limit of the local assay (0.13 nmol/1). In addition to C-peptide, other baseline covariates included gender, age, body mass index, HLA genotype, and autoantibody levels. Results: Compared with autoantibody-negative subjects, autoantibody-positive subjects had lower median baseline C-peptide (0.27 vs. 0.50, P<.001), their levels declined over the study period, and the risk of losing measurable C-peptide was significantly higher when more than one autoantibody was present [odds ratio (OR), 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.13-7.54]. Among autoantibody-positive individuals, the presence of GAD65Ab (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.24-2.51) and islet cell antibodies (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.19-2.18) conferred a higher risk for loss of measurable C-peptide.as did female gender (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.17-2.11) and time after diagnosis (OR, 1.5 for each additional year postdiagnosis; 95% CI, 1.41-1.57). Higher baseline C-peptide levels were protective (OR, 0.5 for each additional log, nanomoles per liter; 95% CI, 0.36-0.58). Conclusions: This study identified autoantibody status, gender, and baseline C-peptide levels as factors that will be useful for predicting the disease course of 15- to 35-year-old diabetic individuals. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Larsson, H. Elding, et al. (författare)
  • Children developing type 1 diabetes before 6 years of age have increased linear growth independent of HLA genotypes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 51:9, s. 1623-1630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis High birthweight and increased childhood growth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes. Relative birthweight is associated with HLA genotypes that confer a high risk of diabetes. Our aims were to test whether young children prior to clinical onset of type 1 diabetes have increased: (1) birthweight or birth length standard deviation scores (SDS), (2) height development SDS, or (3) BMI SDS during first 18 months of life and whether these parameters are related to HLA genotypes or mid-parental height (MPH). Methods Birthweight, birth length, weight and height were obtained from 58 type 1 diabetes children and 155 controls matched for HLA or not in the Diabetes Prediction in Skane study. Results Birth length SDS corrected for MPH was increased in children developing diabetes compared with all (p < , 0.048) and with non-HLA- (p < , 0.050) but not with HLA-matched controls. Children developing diabetes had increased height gain at 0 to 18 months of age (p < ; 0.005). Diabetic children were significantly taller from 6 to 18 months of age when correcting for MPH compared with non-HLA-matched as well as HLA-matched controls, but BMI was not increased. Conclusions/interpretation Birth length SDS was associated with diabetes risk HLA. When corrected for MPH, children developing diabetes were taller at birth than non-HLA- but not taller than HLA-matched controls. Diabetic children had increased MPH-corrected height up to 18 months of age compared with both HLA- and non-HLA-matched controls. High-risk HLA affects prenatal growth, but other factors may explain the increased postnatal linear growth in children developing diabetes.
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9.
  • Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Seroconversion to islet autoantibodies between early pregnancy and delivery in non-diabetic mothers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Reproductive Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 1872-7603. ; 88:1, s. 72-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Islet autoantibodies are currently used to classify type 1 diabetes at diagnosis as they reflect the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease. The presence of maternal autoantibodies reactive with pancreatic islet antigens is thought to increase the risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The objective of this study was to determine seroconversion to islet autoantibodies in non-diabetic mothers during pregnancy. Screening of 33,682 mothers between September 2000 and August 2004 in the Diabetes Prediction in Skane (DiPiS) study showed that at delivery, 242 non-diabetic mothers had increased titers of islet autoantibodies reactive with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) or insulin (IAA), alone or in combination. Control mothers (n = 1419), who were islet autoantibody negative at delivery, were randomly selected and matched by age, parity and pregnancy sampling date. Mothers positive for GADA (92%), IA-2A (84%) or IAA (65%) at delivery had increased titers already evident in early pregnancy. Titers declined for GADA (p<0.0001). IA-2A (p<0.0001) and IAA (p<0.0001). Seroconversion during pregnancy was observed for GADA in 10 (8%), IA-2A in 3 (16%) and IAA in 37 (35%) mothers. It is concluded that non-diabetic mothers with islet autoantibodies at delivery had significantly higher titers during early pregnancy than at delivery. As the statistical power in the seroconverting mothers was insufficient, further studies are needed to determine if the risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring differs between mothers who already had increased titers of islet autoantibodies during early pregnancy or acquired them during pregnancy. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Nilsson, Anna-Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal Variation of Ljungan Virus Antibody Levels in Relation to Islet Autoantibodies and Possible Correlation to Childhood Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Open Pediatric Medicine Journal. - 1874-3099. ; 3, s. 61-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Viral infection may trigger islet autoimmunity, type 1diabetes (T1D), or both. Fluctuating population density of bank voles as a putative reservoir of Ljungan virus has been claimed to be associated with variations in T1D incidence rate (IR). We tested the hypothesis that Ljungan virus antibodies reflecting prior exposure(s) to the virus may be associated with islet autoimmunity, childhood diabetes or both. Incident, 0-18y, T1D patients (n = 63) were studied along with age and sample time matched controls (n = 126). The younger children (< 9 years) tended to have a higher incidence rate during winter (IR = 67.6, 95%CI 41.9-103.5) compared to summer (IR = 33.6, 95%CI 15.3-63.9) months. The proportion of children with high level antibodies against Ljungan virus (LVAb) were both younger compared to the rest of the children (p < 0.002) and correlated with half yearly T1D IR (r = 0.78, p = 0.005). High level LVAb fluctuating with season and correlating with T1D IR indicates that past exposure to Ljungan virus may be associated with T1D.
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