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Sökning: WFRF:(Müller Bettina)

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1.
  • Muller, Bettina, et al. (författare)
  • Fecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Ratios as Related to Gastrointestinal and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Psychosomatic Medicine. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0033-3174 .- 1534-7796. ; 83:7, s. 693-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by the gut microbiota and may reflect health. Gut symptoms are common in individuals with depressive disorders, and recent data indicate relationships between gut microbiota and psychiatric health. We aimed to investigate potential associations between SCFAs and self-reported depressive and gut symptoms in young adults. Methods: Fecal samples from 164 individuals (125 were patients with psychiatric disorders: mean [standard deviation] age = 21.9 [2.6] years, 14% men; 39 nonpsychiatric controls: age = 28.5 [9.5] years, 38% men) were analyzed for the SCFA acetate, butyrate, and propionate by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We then compared SCFA ratios with dimensional measures of self-reported depressive and gut symptoms. Results: Depressive symptoms showed a positive association with acetate levels (rho = 0.235, p =.003) and negative associations with both butyrate (rho = -0.195, p =.014) and propionate levels (rho = -0.201, p =.009) in relation to total SCFA levels. Furthermore, symptoms of diarrhea showed positive associations with acetate (rho = 0.217, p =.010) and negative associations with propionate in relation to total SCFA levels (rho = 0.229, p = 0-007). Cluster analysis revealed a heterogeneous pattern where shifts in SCFA ratios were observed in individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms, elevated levels of gut symptoms, or both. Conclusions: Shifts in SCFAs are associated with both depressive symptoms and gut symptoms in young adults and may have of relevance for treatment.
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2.
  • Cunningham, Janet, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of time and temperature on gut microbiota and SCFA composition in stool samples
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a growing number of non-communicable diseases. High through-put sequencing technologies and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiling enables surveying of the composition and function of the gut microbiota and provide key insights into host-microbiome interactions. However, a methodological problem with analyzing stool samples is that samples are treated and stored differently prior to submission for analysis potentially influencing the composition of the microbiota and its metabolites. In the present study, we simulated the sample acquisition of a large-scale study, in which stool samples were stored for up to two days in the fridge or at room temperature before being handed over to the hospital. To assess the influence of time and temperature on the microbial community and on SCFA composition in a controlled experimental setting, the stool samples of 10 individuals were exposed to room and fridge temperatures for 24 and 48 hours, respectively, and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, qPCR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the influence of storage time and temperature on the absolute abundance of methanogens, and ofLactobacillus reuteri. The results indicate that values obtained for methanogens,L.reuteriand total bacteria are still representative even after storage for up to 48 hours at RT (20 degrees C) or 4 degrees C. The overall microbial composition and structure appeared to be influenced more by laboratory errors introduced during sample processing than by the actual effects of temperature and time. Although microbial activity was demonstrated by elevated SCFA at both 4 degrees C and RT, SCFAs ratios were more stable over the different conditions and may be considered as long as samples are come from similar storage conditions.
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3.
  • Hippe, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • EGFR/Ras-induced CCL20 production modulates the tumour microenvironment.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 123:6, s. 942-954
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The activation of the EGFR/Ras-signalling pathway in tumour cells induces a distinct chemokine repertoire, which in turn modulates the tumour microenvironment.METHODS: The effects of EGFR/Ras on the expression and translation of CCL20 were analysed in a large set of epithelial cancer cell lines and tumour tissues by RT-qPCR and ELISA in vitro. CCL20 production was verified by immunohistochemistry in different tumour tissues and correlated with clinical data. The effects of CCL20 on endothelial cell migration and tumour-associated vascularisation were comprehensively analysed with chemotaxis assays in vitro and in CCR6-deficient mice in vivo.RESULTS: Tumours facilitate progression by the EGFR/Ras-induced production of CCL20. Expression of the chemokine CCL20 in tumours correlates with advanced tumour stage, increased lymph node metastasis and decreased survival in patients. Microvascular endothelial cells abundantly express the specific CCL20 receptor CCR6. CCR6 signalling in endothelial cells induces angiogenesis. CCR6-deficient mice show significantly decreased tumour growth and tumour-associated vascularisation. The observed phenotype is dependent on CCR6 deficiency in stromal cells but not within the immune system.CONCLUSION: We propose that the chemokine axis CCL20-CCR6 represents a novel and promising target to interfere with the tumour microenvironment, and opens an innovative multimodal strategy for cancer therapy.
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5.
  • Marshall, Christian R., et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of copy number variants to schizophrenia from a genome-wide study of 41,321 subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:1, s. 27-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) have been strongly implicated in the genetic etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). However, genome-wide investigation of the contribution of CNV to risk has been hampered by limited sample sizes. We sought to address this obstacle by applying a centralized analysis pipeline to a SCZ cohort of 21,094 cases and 20,227 controls. A global enrichment of CNV burden was observed in cases (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, P = 5.7 x 10(-15)), which persisted after excluding loci implicated in previous studies (OR = 1.07, P = 1.7 x 10(-6)). CNV burden was enriched for genes associated with synaptic function (OR = 1.68, P = 2.8 x 10(-11)) and neurobehavioral phenotypes in mouse (OR = 1.18, P = 7.3 x 10(-5)). Genome-wide significant evidence was obtained for eight loci, including 1q21.1, 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 3q29, 7q11.2, 15q13.3, distal 16p11.2, proximal 16p11.2 and 22q11.2. Suggestive support was found for eight additional candidate susceptibility and protective loci, which consisted predominantly of CNVs mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination.
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6.
  • Moestedt, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Acetate and Lactate Production During Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste Driven by Lactobacillus and Aeriscardovia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Energy Research. - : FRONTIERS MEDIA SA. - 2296-598X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In a previous study, single-stage processes were compared with two-stage processes, using either food waste alone or mixed with thin stillage as substrate. Overall methane yield increased (by 12%) in two-stage compared with single-stage digestion when using food waste, but decreased when food waste was co-digested with thin stillage (50:50 on VS basis). The obtained difference in methane yield was likely caused by a higher acetate level in the first stage reactor operating with food waste alone (around 20 g/L) compared to the reactor also treating thin stillage (around 8 g /L). The present study sought to shed additional light on possible causes of the large difference in methane yield by scrutinizing the microbial community in the first- and second-stage reactors, using a combined Illumina sequencing and qPCR approach. Results: In the first-stage process, acid-tolerant Aeriscardovia and Lactobacillus formed a highly efficient consortium. For food waste with high levels of acetate (20 g/L, equal to 0.14 g acetate/g VS) was produced but when thin stillage was added the pH was lower (<4), resulting in lactate production exceeding acetate production. This difference in hydrolysate composition between the reactors resulted in development of slightly different communities in the second-stage, for both hydrolysis, fermentation, and acetogenesis. High acetate concentration appeared to promote proliferation of different syntrophic consortia, such as various syntrophic acetate oxidizers, members of the genus Syntrophomonas and candidate phylum Cloacimonetes, likely explaining the higher methane yields with two-step compared with single-stage digestion of food waste. Conclusion: Using food waste as sole substrate resulted in enrichment of Lactobacillus and Aeriscardovia and high acetate yields in the first-stage reactor. This was beneficial for biogas yield in two-stage digestion, where efficient acid-degrading syntrophic consortia developed. Addition of thin stillage contributed to low pH and higher lactate production, which resulted in decreased methane yield in the two-stage process compared with using food waste as sole substrate.
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7.
  • Bloeschl, Gunter, et al. (författare)
  • Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH) - a community perspective
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0262-6667 .- 2150-3435. ; 64:10, s. 1141-1158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.
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8.
  • Brandt, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Abundance Tracking by Long-Read Nanopore Sequencing of Complex Microbial Communities in Samples from 20 Different Biogas/Wastewater Plants
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Applied Sciences. - : MDPI. - 2076-3417. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anaerobic digestion (AD) has long been critical technology for green energy, but the majority of the microorganisms involved are unknown and are currently not cultivable, which makes abundance tracking difficult. Developments in nanopore long-read sequencing make it a promising approach for monitoring microbial communities via metagenomic sequencing. For reliable monitoring of AD via long reads, we established a robust protocol for obtaining less fragmented, high-quality DNA, while preserving bacteria and archaea composition, for a broad range of different biogas reactors. Samples from 20 different biogas/wastewater reactors were investigated, and a median of 20.5 Gb sequencing data per nanopore flow cell was retrieved for each reactor using the developed DNA isolation protocol. The nanopore sequencing data were compared against Illumina sequencing data while using different taxonomic indices for read classifications. The Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB) index allowed sufficient characterisation of the abundance of bacteria and archaea in biogas reactors with a dramatic improvement (1.8- to 13-fold increase) in taxonomic classification compared to the RefSeq index. Both technologies performed similarly in taxonomic read classification with a slight advantage for Illumina in regard to the total proportion of classified reads. However, nanopore sequencing data revealed a higher genus richness after classification. Metagenomic read classification via nanopore provides a promising approach to monitor the abundance of taxa present in a microbial AD community as an alternative to 16S ribosomal RNA studies or Illumina Sequencing.
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9.
  • Brandt, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Assessing genetic diversity and similarity of 435 KPC-carrying plasmids
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The global spread and diversification of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria poses major challenges to healthcare. In particular, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have been frequently identified in infections and hospital-wide outbreaks. The most frequently underlying resistance gene (bla(KPC)) has been spreading over the last decade in the health care setting. bla(KPC) seems to have rapidly diversified and has been found in various species and on different plasmid types. To review the progress and dynamics of this diversification, all currently available KPC plasmids in the NCBI database were analysed in this work. Plasmids were grouped into 257 different representative KPC plasmids, of which 79.4% could be clearly assigned to incompatibility (Inc) group or groups. In almost half of all representative plasmids, the KPC gene is located on Tn4401 variants, emphasizing the importance of this transposon type for the transmission of KPC genes to other plasmids. The transposons also seem to be responsible for the occurrence of altered or uncommon fused plasmid types probably due to incomplete transposition. Moreover, many KPC plasmids contain genes that encode proteins promoting recombinant processes and mutagenesis; in consequence accelerating the diversification of KPC genes and other colocalized resistance genes.
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10.
  • Burkhard, Benjamin, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping and assessing ecosystem services in the EU - Lessons learned from the ESMERALDA approach of integration
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: One Ecosystem. - 2367-8194. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action ESMERALDA aimed at developing guidance and a flexible methodology for Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) to support the EU member states in the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy’s Target 2 Action 5. ESMERALDA’s key tasks included network creation, stakeholder engagement, enhancing ecosystem services mapping and assessment methods across various spatial scales and value domains, work in case studies and support of EU member states in MAES implementation. Thus ESMERALDA aimed at integrating various project outcomes around four major strands: i) Networking, ii) Policy, iii) Research and iv) Application. The objective was to provide guidance for integrated ecosystem service mapping and assessment that can be used for sustainable decision-making in policy, business, society, practice and science at EU, national and regional levels. This article presents the overall ESMERALDA approach of integrating the above-mentioned project components and outcomes and provides an overview of how the enhanced methods were applied and how they can be used to support MAES implementation in the EU member states. Experiences with implementing such a large pan-European Coordination and Support Action in the context of EU policy are discussed and recommendations for future actions are given.
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