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Sökning: WFRF:(Macdonald Robie W.)

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1.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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2.
  • Pućko, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • The delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic food web : why sea ice matters
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 506–507, s. 444-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For decades sea ice has been perceived as a physical barrier for the loading of contaminants to the Arctic Ocean. We show that sea ice, in fact, facilitates the delivery of organic contaminants to the Arctic marine food web through processes that: 1) are independent of contaminant physical–chemical properties (e.g. 2–3-fold increase in exposure to brine-associated biota), and 2) depend on physical–chemical properties and, therefore, differentiate between contaminants (e.g. atmospheric loading of contaminants to melt ponds over the summer, and their subsequent leakage to the ocean). We estimate the concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in melt pond water in the Beaufort Sea, Canadian High Arctic, in 2008, at near-gas exchange equilibrium based on Henry's law constants (HLCs), air concentrations and exchange dynamics. CUPs currently present the highest risk of increased exposures through melt pond loading and drainage due to the high ratio of melt pond water to seawater concentration (Melt pond Enrichment Factor, MEF), which ranges from 2 for dacthal to 10 for endosulfan I. Melt pond contaminant enrichment can be perceived as a hypothetical ‘pump’ delivering contaminants from the atmosphere to the ocean under ice-covered conditions, with 2–10% of CUPs annually entering the Beaufort Sea via this input route compared to the standing stock in the Polar Mixed Layer of the ocean. The abovementioned processes are strongly favored in first-year ice compared to multi-year ice and, therefore, the dynamic balance between contaminant inventories and contaminant deposition to the surface ocean is being widely affected by the large-scale icescape transition taking place in the Arctic.
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3.
  • McGuire, A.D., et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Ecological Monographs. - : Ecological Society of America. - 0012-9615. ; 79:4, s. 523-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recent warming in the Arctic is affecting a broad spectrum of physical, ecological, and human/cultural systems that may be irreversible on century time scales and have the potential to cause rapid changes in the earth system. The response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to changes in climate is a major issue of global concern, yet there has not been a comprehensive review of the status of the contemporary carbon cycle of the Arctic and its response to climate change. This review is designed to clarify key uncertainties and vulnerabilities in the response of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to ongoing climatic change. While it is clear that there are substantial stocks of carbon in the Arctic, there are also significant uncertainties associated with the magnitude of organic matter stocks contained in permafrost and the storage of methane hydrates beneath both subterranean and submerged permafrost of the Arctic. In the context of the global carbon cycle, this review demonstrates that the Arctic plays an important role in the global dynamics of both CO2 and CH4. Studies suggest that the Arctic has been a sink for atmospheric CO2 of between 0 and 0.8 Pg C/yr in recent decades, which is between 0% and 25% of the global net land/ocean flux during the 1990s. The Arctic is a substantial source of CH4 to the atmosphere (between 32 and 112 Tg CH4/yr), primarily because of the large area of wetlands throughout the region. Analyses to date indicate that the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic during the remainder of the 21st century is highly uncertain. To improve the capability to assess the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the Arctic to projected climate change, we recommend that (1) integrated regional studies be conducted to link observations of carbon dynamics to the processes that are likely to influence those dynamics, and (2) the understanding gained from these integrated studies be incorporated into both uncoupled and fully coupled carbon–climate modeling efforts.
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4.
  • McGuire, A. David, et al. (författare)
  • The carbon budget of the northern cryosphere region
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. - : Elsevier. - 1877-3443 .- 1877-3435. ; 2:4, s. 231-236
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The northern cryosphere is undergoing substantial warming of permafrost and loss of sea ice. Release of stored carbon to the atmosphere in response to this change has the potential to affect the global climate system. Studies indicate that the northern cryosphere has been not only a substantial sink for atmospheric CO2 in recent decades, but also an important source of CH4 because of emissions from wetlands and lakes. Analyses suggest that the sensitivity of the carbon cycle of the region over the 21st Century is potentially large, but highly uncertain because numerous pathways of response will be affected by warming. Further research should focus on sensitive elements of the carbon cycle such as the consequences of increased fire disturbance, permafrost degradation, and sea ice loss in the northern cryosphere region.
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5.
  • Anderson, Leif G, 1951, et al. (författare)
  • Observing the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle in a changing
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Polar Research. - 0800-0395 .- 1751-8369. ; 34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate warming is especially pronounced in the Arctic, which has led to decreased sea-ice coverage and substantial permafrost thawing. These changes 20 have a profound impact on the carbon cycle that directly affects the air sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2), possibly leading to substantial feedback on atmospheric CO2 concentration. Several recent studies have indicated such feedback but the future quantitative impact is very uncertain. To minimize these uncertainties, there is a need for extensive field studies in order to achieve 25 both a better process understanding as well as to detect probable trends in these processes. In this contribution, we describe a number of processes that have been reported to be impacted by climate change and suggest a coordinated international observational programme for their study.
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6.
  • Bidleman, Terry Frank, et al. (författare)
  • Scavenging amphipods : sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep arctic ocean
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 47:11, s. 5553-5561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (∑Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ∑Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ∑Hg. ∑Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (∑Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with δ(13)C nor δ(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156 000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ∑TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ∑PCBs > ∑DDTs > ∑chlordanes > ∑mirex compounds > ∑BDEs ∼ ∑chlorobenzenes ∼ octachlorostyrene > α-hexachlorocyclohexane ∼ hexachlorobenzene ∼ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.
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7.
  • Feng, Xiaojuan, et al. (författare)
  • Multimolecular tracers of terrestrial carbon transfer across the pan-Arctic : C-14 characteristics of sedimentary carbon components and their environmental controls
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. - 0886-6236 .- 1944-9224. ; 29:11, s. 1855-1873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Distinguishing the sources, ages, and fate of various terrestrial organic carbon (OC) pools mobilized from heterogeneous Arctic landscapes is key to assessing climatic impacts on the fluvial release of carbon from permafrost. Through molecular C-14 measurements, including novel analyses of suberin- and/or cutin-derived diacids (DAs) and hydroxy fatty acids (FAs), we compared the radiocarbon characteristics of a comprehensive suite of terrestrial markers (including plant wax lipids, cutin, suberin, lignin, and hydroxy phenols) in the sedimentary particles from nine major arctic and subarctic rivers in order to establish a benchmark assessment of the mobilization patterns of terrestrial OC pools across the pan-Arctic. Terrestrial lipids, including suberin-derived longer-chain DAs (C-24,C-26,C-28), plant wax FAs (C(24,26,2)8), and n-alkanes (C-27,C-29,C-31), incorporated significant inputs of aged carbon, presumably from deeper soil horizons. Mobilization and translocation of these old terrestrial carbon components was dependent on nonlinear processes associated with permafrost distributions. By contrast, shorter-chain (C-16,C-18) DAs and lignin phenols (as well as hydroxy phenols in rivers outside eastern Eurasian Arctic) were much more enriched in C-14, suggesting incorporation of relatively young carbon supplied by runoff processes from recent vegetation debris and surface layers. Furthermore, the radiocarbon content of terrestrial markers is heavily influenced by specific OC sources and degradation status. Overall, multitracer molecular C-14 analysis sheds new light on the mobilization of terrestrial OC from arctic watersheds. Our findings of distinct ages for various terrestrial carbon components may aid in elucidating fate of different terrestrial OC pools in the face of increasing arctic permafrost thaw.
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8.
  • Pućko, Monika, et al. (författare)
  • Current use pesticide and legacy organochlorine pesticide dynamics at the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interface in resolute passage, Canadian Arctic, during winter-summer transition
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 580, s. 1460-1469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here, we present the first detailed analysis of processes by which various current use pesticides (CUPs) and legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are concentrated in melt ponds that form on Arctic sea ice in the summer, when surface snow is melting and ice eventually breaks up. Four current use pesticides (dacthal, chlorpyrifos, trifluralin, and pentachloronitrobenzene) and one legacy organochlorine pesticide (α-hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in ponds in Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic, in 2012. Melt-pond concentrations changed over time as a function of gas exchange, precipitation, and dilution with melting sea ice. Observed increases in melt-pond concentrations for all detected pesticides were associated with precipitation events. Dacthal reached the highest concentration of all current use pesticides in ponds (95 ± 71 pg L− 1), a value exceeding measured concentrations in the under-ice (0 m) and 5 m seawater by > 10 and > 16 times, respectively. Drainage of dacthal-enriched pond water to the ocean during ice break-up provides an important ice-mediated annual delivery route, adding ~ 30% of inventory in the summer Mixed Layer (ML; 10 m) in the Resolute Passage, and a concentrating mechanism with potential implications for exposures to organisms such as ice algae, and phytoplankton.
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