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1.
  • Merker, Björn H., et al. (författare)
  • On the role and origin of isochrony in human rhythmic entrainment
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cortex. - : Elsevier. - 0010-9452 .- 1973-8102. ; 45:1, s. 4-17
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wherever human beings live, and however they may organise their affairs, they gather from time to time to sing and dance together, often in a ritual setting. In doing so they synchronise their voices and bodily movements to a shared, repeating interval of time, the musical pulse, beat or tactus. We take this capacity to "entrain" to an evenly paced stimulus (isochrony) so much for granted that it may come as a surprise to learn that from a biological point of view such behaviour is exceptional. But it is not altogether unique. There are a number of other species, none of them closely related to humans, that also engage in group synchrony of behaviour through entrainment to an isochronous pulse. Despite their evolutionary distance from us their life circumstances throw an interesting light on the possible origin and nature of our own entrainment capacity. Here we consider this capacity in terms of its possible origin, functional mechanisms, and ontogenetic development.
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2.
  • Theorell, Töres, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of continued playing or singing - from childhood and adolescence to adult years
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 104:3, s. 274-284
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Many individuals play an instrument or sing during childhood, but they often stop later in life. This study surveyed adults representative of the Swedish population about musical activities during childhood.Methods: We asked 3820 adults (65% women) aged from 27 to 54 from the Swedish Twin Registry, who took extra music lessons to those provided at school, to fill in a web-based questionnaire. Factors analysed were the age they started studying music, the instrument they played, kind of teaching, institution and educational content, number of lessons and perceived characteristics of the lessons, the music environment during their childhood years and their preferred music genre. All variables were dichotomised.Results: Factors strongly associated with continued playing or singing were male sex, young starting age, cultural family background, self-selected instrument, attending music classes and more than once a week, church-related or private education, pop, rock or classical music, playing by ear and improvisation.Conclusion: Several significant predictors determined whether a child continued to sing or play an instrument as an adult and many could be externally influenced, such as starting at a young age, taking music classes more than once a week, improvisation and the type of music they played.
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3.
  • Appelgren, Alva, et al. (författare)
  • Tuning in on motivation : Differences between non-musicians, amateurs, and professional musicians
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Music. - : Sage Publications. - 0305-7356 .- 1741-3087. ; 47:6, s. 864-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The drive to learn and engage in music varies among individuals. Global motivation to do something can be intrinsic, for example, the joy and satisfaction in an activity. But motivation behind our action can also be extrinsic, such as the desire for fame, status or increased financial resources. The type of motivation probably influences to what degree individuals engage in musical activities. In this study, we examined the associations between the level of musical engagement and self-rated global motivation, factoring in age and sex, in a sample of 5,435 individuals. Musical engagement ranged from no music activity to amateurs and professional musicians. We found that intrinsic motivation increases with level of music activity and that motivation differs depending on sex, with females scoring higher on intrinsic motivation than males. Such differences may be considered in adjusting the forms of support offered to young musicians in music education. The phenomenon of motivation is complex, and we have highlighted areas that require further investigation, but this study has elucidated some differences in motivation types found in men and women, and between non-musicians, amateurs and professional musicians.
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4.
  • Forsman, Lea J., et al. (författare)
  • Neuroticism is correlated with drift in serial time interval production
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences. - : Elsevier. - 0191-8869 .- 1873-3549. ; 47:3, s. 229-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low neuroticism and high intelligence are both related to lower intertrial variability in reaction time tasks. However, intelligence and neuroticism are weakly related traits, which suggests that they may be related to different sources of timing variability. The relation between intelligence and timing variability has recently been investigated using isochronous serial interval production (ISIP). This is a simple, automatic timing task where participants first synchronize movements with an isochronous sound sequence and then continue with self-paced production of a sequence of intervals with the same inter-onset interval (IOI). For all IOIs, local interval-to-interval variability correlated strongest with intelligence. The purpose of the present study was to test whether neuroticism, in contrast, is related to the non-local component of ISIP variability, i.e. drift or gradual changes in response IOI. We found a significant correlation of r = 0.42 between drift and neuroticism, thereby confirming the hypothesis. We suggest that this finding reflects that individuals high on neuroticism have more frequent slips in top–down cognitive control mechanisms. These cognitive failures may in turn interfere with the processing of previously produced intervals in short-term memory, which gives an unstable IOI in the ISIP task, i.e. drift.
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5.
  • Hesselman Borg, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pain Research. - Albany : Dove medical press. - 1178-7090 .- 1178-7090. ; 9, s. 303-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years.METHODS: We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables.RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP.CONCLUSION: The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support.
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6.
  • Holm, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Executive control and working memory are involved in sub-second repetitive motor timing
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 235:3, s. 787-798
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nature of the relationship between timing and cognition remains poorly understood. Cognitive control is known to be involved in discrete timing tasks involving durations above 1 s, but has not yet been demonstrated for repetitive motor timing below 1 s. We examined the latter in two continuation tapping experiments, by varying the cognitive load in a concurrent task. In Experiment 1, participants repeated a fixed three finger sequence (low executive load) or a pseudorandom sequence (high load) with either 524-, 733-, 1024- or 1431-ms inter-onset intervals (IOIs). High load increased timing variability for 524 and 733-ms IOIs but not for the longer IOIs. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate this finding for a concurrent memory task. Participants retained three letters (low working memory load) or seven letters (high load) while producing intervals (524- and 733-ms IOIs) with a drum stick. High load increased timing variability for both IOIs. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that cognitive control processes influence sub-second repetitive motor timing.
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7.
  • Holm, Linus, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Intelligence and temporal accuracy of behaviour : unique and shared associations with reaction time and motor timing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research. - : Springer. - 0014-4819 .- 1432-1106. ; 214:2, s. 175-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intelligence is associated with accuracy in a wide range of timing tasks. One source of such associations is likely to be individual differences in top-down control, e.g. sustained attention, that influence performance in both temporal tasks and other cognitively controlled behaviors. In addition, we have studied relations between intelligence and a simple rhythmic motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), and found a substantial component of that relation, which is independent of fluctuations in top-down control. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether such bottom-up mechanisms are involved also in the relation between intelligence and reaction time (RT) tasks. We thus investigated if common variance between the ISIP and RT tasks underlies their respective associations with intelligence. 112 participants performed a simple RT task, a choice RT task and the ISIP task. Intelligence was assessed with the Raven SPM Plus. The analysed timing variables included mean and variability in the RT tasks and two variance components in the ISIP task. As predicted, RT and ISIP variables were associated with intelligence. The timing variables were positively intercorrelated and a principal component analysis revealed a substantial first principal component that was strongly related to all timing variables, and positively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, a commonality analysis demonstrated that the relations between intelligence and the timing variables involved a commonality between the timing variables as well as unique contributions from choice RT and ISIP. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and argue that they support our main hypothesis, i.e. that relations between intelligence and RT tasks have a bottom-up component.
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8.
  • Holm, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0096-1523 .- 1939-1277. ; 39:2, s. 365-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments, participants produced isochronous intervals ranging from 524 to 2,000 ms with either the left or the right hand. The concurrent task consisted of the production of either a pseudorandom (high cognitive load) or a simple repeated (low cognitive load) spatial sequence of key presses, while also maintaining a regular temporal sequence. This task was performed with either a single hand (unimanual) or with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Interference in terms of increased timing variability caused by the concurrent task was observed only in the bimanual condition. We verified that motor coordination in bimanual tasks alone could not account for the interference. Timing interference only appeared when (a) more than 1 effector was involved and (b) there were simultaneous task demands that recruited executive functions. Task interference was not seen if only 1 of these 2 conditions was met. Thus, our results suggest that executive functions are not directly involved in motor timing, but can indirectly affect timing performance when they are required to schedule complex motor coordination.
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9.
  • Madison, Guy, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic influences on intelligence and auditory simple reaction time in a large Swedish sample
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Intelligence. - : Elsevier. - 0160-2896 .- 1873-7935. ; 59, s. 157-162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intelligence and cognitive ability have long been associated with chronometric performance measures, such as reaction time (RT), but few studies have investigated auditory RT in this context. The nature of this relationship is important for understanding the etiology and structure of intelligence. Here, we present a bivariate twin analysis of simple auditory RT and psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wiener Matrizen Test). The sample consisted of 1,816 complete twin pairs and 4623 singletons enrolled in the Swedish Twin Registry, who performed the tests online. The heritabilities were 0.54 and 0.21 for intelligence and RT, respectively, and the phenotypic correlation was −0.17, 47% of which was explained by common genetic variance. These results are comparable to those found for visual RT and for other cognitive tests, and add RT in the auditory modality to the small literature on common genetic influences across intelligence and other cognitive and chronometric variables.
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10.
  • Madison, Guy, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between intelligence and components of serial timing variability
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Intelligence. - 0160-2896 .- 1873-7935. ; 37, s. 68-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychometric intelligence correlates with reaction time in elementary cognitive tasks, as well as with performance in time discrimination and judgment tasks. It has remained unclear, however, to what extent these correlations are due to top–down mechanisms, such as attention, and bottom–up mechanisms, i.e. basic neural properties that influence both temporal accuracy and cognitive processes. Here, we assessed correlations between intelligence (Raven SPM Plus) and performance in isochronous serial interval production, a simple, automatic timing task where participants first make movements in synchrony with an isochronous sequence of sounds and then continue with self-paced production to produce a sequence of intervals with the same inter-onset interval (IOI). The target IOI varied across trials. A number of different measures of timing variability were considered, all negatively correlated with intelligence. Across all stimulus IOIs, local interval-to-interval variability correlated more strongly with intelligence than drift, i.e. gradual changes in response IOI. The strongest correlations with intelligence were found for IOIs between 400 and 900 ms, rather than above 1 s, which is typically considered a lower limit for cognitive timing. Furthermore, poor trials, i.e. trials arguably most affected by lapses in attention, did not predict intelligence better than the most accurate trials. We discuss these results in relation to the human timing literature, and argue that they support a bottom–up model of the relation between temporal variability of neural activity and intelligence.
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