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Sökning: WFRF:(Malmqvist Karin)

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1.
  • Nero, Daniella, et al. (författare)
  • Personality Traits in Patients with Myocardial Infarction with Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The American journal of medicine. - 1555-7162. ; 132:3, s. 374-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to describe type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and compare them with patients with coronary heart disease and healthy controls. Type A behavior pattern and anger have been linked to coronary heart disease in previous studies. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in MINOCA patients.One hundred MINOCA patients, consecutively recruited during 2007-2011 at 5 coronary care units in Stockholm, were matched for sex and age to 100 coronary heart disease patients and 100 healthy controls. All participants completed the Bortner Rating Scale to quantify type A behavior pattern and the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale to quantify anger 3 months after the acute event.MINOCA patients' Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.9 ± 10.8 (mean ± SD) and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17) (median; interquartile range). Coronary heart disease patients' Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.5 ± 10.2 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17). Healthy controls' Bortner Rating Scale score was 71.9 ± 9.1 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 13 (11-16).We found no significant differences in Bortner Rating Scale score and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score among MINOCA, coronary heart disease patients, and healthy controls, regardless of whether total scores, subscales, or cutoffs were used to classify type A behavior pattern and trait anger. However, we cannot exclude the existence of an occasional episode of anger or mental stress in relation to the coronary event. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with MINOCA, and future studies need to confirm the current findings before any firm conclusions can be made.
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2.
  • Daniel, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries on Physical Capacity and Quality-of-Life
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 120:3, s. 341-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA), including Takotsubo syndrome (TS), are considered to have a better survival compared with those with coronary heart disease (CHD). Studies of patients with MINOCA measuring physical and mental function including matched control groups are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the physical capacity and quality of life in patients with MINOCA. One-hundred patients with MINOCA along with TS (25%) were investigated from 2007 to 2011. A bicycle exercise stress test was performed 6 weeks after hospitalization and QoL was investigated by the Short Form Survey 36 at 3 months' follow-up. Both a healthy and a CHD group that were age and gender matched were used as controls. The MINOCA group had a lower physical capacity (139 ± 42 W) compared with the healthy control group (167 ± 53 W, p &lt;0.001) but better than the CHD control group (124 ± 39 W, p = 0.023). Patients with MINOCA had lower physical and mental component summary scores compared with the healthy controls (p &lt;0.001) and lower mental component summary (p = 0.012), mental health (p = 0.016), and vitality (p = 0.008) scores compared with the CHD controls. In conclusion, the findings of this first study on exercise capacity and QoL in patients with MINOCA showed both physical and mental distress from 6 weeks to 3 months after the acute event similar to CHD controls and in some perspectives even lower scores especially in the mental component of QoL.</p>
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3.
  • Jekell, A, et al. (författare)
  • Markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and arterial stiffness in hypertensive heart disease and the effects of treatment : results from the SILVHIA study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1533-4023. ; 62:6, s. 66-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed the contribution of blood pressure (BP), inflammation, and endothelial activation to the development of structural vascular and cardiac changes in hypertension. Furthermore, the effects of antihypertensive therapy were studied. We studied 114 patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy and 38 matched hypertensive subjects without cardiac hypertrophy and 38 normotensive subjects. The group with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were randomized to treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (irbesartan) or a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (atenolol) for 48 weeks. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leukocyte counts), vascular function (ambulatory aortic stiffness index, arterial compliance, and pulse pressure), and endothelial activation (E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1) were assessed. Markers of inflammation and arterial stiffness were lowest in the normotensive group and highest in patients with hypertensive heart disease; endothelial markers were similar between groups. Inflammation was independently related to BP. Markers of arterial stiffness were independently related to BP and to a lesser extent to left ventricular mass. Antihypertensive treatment improved arterial compliance; inflammatory and endothelial markers remained unchanged. In conclusion, markers of inflammation and arterial stiffness are independently related to BP. Antihypertensive therapy seems to improve arterial stiffness, but effects on markers of inflammation and endothelial activation are small.
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4.
  • Kaufmann, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 22:10, s. 1617-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.</p>
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6.
  • Nero, Daniella, et al. (författare)
  • Personality Traits in Patients with Myocardial Infarction with Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medicine. - 0002-9343 .- 1555-7162. ; 132:3, s. 374-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and compare them with patients with coronary heart disease and healthy controls. Type A behavior pattern and anger have been linked to coronary heart disease in previous studies. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in MINOCA patients. Methods: One hundred MINOCA patients, consecutively recruited during 2007-2011 at 5 coronary care units in Stockholm, were matched for sex and age to 100 coronary heart disease patients and 100 healthy controls. All participants completed the Bortner Rating Scale to quantify type A behavior pattern and the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale to quantify anger 3 months after the acute event. Results: MINOCA patients’ Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.9 ± 10.8 (mean ± SD) and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17) (median; interquartile range). Coronary heart disease patients’ Bortner Rating Scale score was 70.5 ± 10.2 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 14 (12-17). Healthy controls’ Bortner Rating Scale score was 71.9 ± 9.1 and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score was 13 (11-16). Conclusion: We found no significant differences in Bortner Rating Scale score and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale score among MINOCA, coronary heart disease patients, and healthy controls, regardless of whether total scores, subscales, or cutoffs were used to classify type A behavior pattern and trait anger. However, we cannot exclude the existence of an occasional episode of anger or mental stress in relation to the coronary event. This is the first study to assess type A behavior pattern and trait anger in patients with MINOCA, and future studies need to confirm the current findings before any firm conclusions can be made. </p>
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7.
  • Björklund, Karin, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Best Management Practices to Reduce Phthalate and Nonylphenol Loads in Urban Runoff
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Urban Drainage, 1-5 September, Edinburgh, UK.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phthalates and nonylphenols, organic substances of widespread use, are believed to be ubiquitous in Swedish stormwater and urban sediments. Due to their reported hazardous properties, it is of great interest to identify effective best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the release of these substances to recipient waters. The stormwater-quality model SEWSYS was used to identify sources and quantify loads of phthalates and nonylphenols in two urban catchment areas. Based on the modelling results, BMPs were proposed, and their efficiencies evaluated. The SEWSYS simulations showed that discharges of phthalates and nonylphenols depend on catchment area characteristics: pollutants in a residential area originate mainly from building materials, whereas vehicles are the dominant source in a high-density traffic area. By replacing traditional building materials by phthalate and nonylphenol-free alternatives and by implementing congestion taxes to reduce traffic, the simulated pollutant loads could be reduced by more than 20% in the high-density traffic area. However, discharges from many diffuse sources cannot entirely be stopped, and a structural BMP, e.g. a sedimentation pond, is essential to further decrease pollutant loads in urban runoff. This study shows that SEWSYS can be a useful tool for selecting and evaluating adequate BMPs to reduce stormwater contamination.
8.
  • Björklund, Karin, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Källor till och flöden av ftalater och nonylfenoler i Stockholms dagvatten
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • SEWSYS is a computer model designed for simulating fluxes of pollutants from its’ sources to the urban stormwater system. The model is able to simulate concentrations of substances in stormwater – thereby reducing the need for sampling and analyses of stormwater – as well as establishing the major sources of the pollutants in the urban environment. The aim of this work has been to identify the sources of some selected organic pollutants, adjusting SEWSYS to these new substances and simulating their fluxes in urban stormwater. The simulation results have then been used to investigate proper barriers to prevent these substances to reach the environment.The prioritised pollutants chosen to be studied were four phthalates – DBP, DEHP, DINP and DIDP – nonylphenols (NP) and their ethoxylates (NPE). Phthalates are plasticisers used in PVC (often as coil coating), paint and sealants. NP/E:s are surfactants used in a range of materials, such as concrete, paint and plastics. In order to add these pollutants into the SEWSYS model, the emission of each substance from each of the identified sources was scrutinised. Depending on the overall lack of data, assumptions and estimations were necessary to be made for the emission calculations.Two housing areas and one area dominated by traffic were selected for the modelling. Information on the prevalence of the different sources together with rainfall data were used for the simulation of stormwater runoff and pollution load. The model was calibrated with measured stormwater flows and volumes, as well as analysed concentrations of the pollutants in stormwater from the chosen housing and traffic areas. The traffic area showed high concentrations of phthalates in the stormwater samples. DIDP, and particularly DINP, showed the highest concentrations in most samples, both from the traffic area and the housing areas. The NP and NPE concentrations in most samples were close to or under the detection limits for the analytical methods used.The calibration of the model showed that the runoff module in SEWSYS is able to predict the runoff volume well. After recalculating and adjusting some of the emission factors, the concentrations of the pollutants were in the same magnitude as the measured values. The simulations showed that vehicles are the dominating source of the phthalates in the traffic area. Parking spaces and concrete are indicated to emit significant amounts of NP/E:s. In the housing areas the construction materials – such as plastic coated steel for roofing and cladding – were the most important sources of phthalates. Parking spaces tend to cause high pollution loads of NP/E:s.To reduce the load of organic pollutants in the environment a combination of barriers can be used – these barriers may include legislative measures to prohibit the use of a substance, recommendations to the consumers (not) to use specific construction materials or installing technical measures such as sedimentation facilities. A preliminary simulation show that by using construction materials free from phthalates or NP/E:s or reducing the traffic load, combined with a technical barrier such as a sedimentation pond, the pollution load from housing or traffic area is considerably decreased.
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9.
  • Björklund, Karin, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Phthalates and nonylphenols in urban runoff: Occurrence, distribution and area emission factors
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697. ; 407:16, s. 4665-4672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The urban water system is believed to be an important sink for the nonpoint-source pollutants nonylphenols and phthalates. The presence of nonylphenols (NPs), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and eight phthalates was analyzed in urban stormwater and sediment from three catchment areas in Sweden. Emission loads for these substances were then calculated for a specific urban catchment area. In addition, substance distribution in road runoff passing through a sedimentation facility was modeled using a modified QWASI-model for chemical fate. High concentrations of DEHP, DIDP and DINP (≤ 48, 66 and 200 µg/g dw, respectively) as well as nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylate (6.6 and 20 µg/g dw, respectively) were found in the sediment. Aqueous concentrations of the pollutants varied considerably; branched NP was detected in concentrations up to 1.2 µg/L, whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), and diisononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most frequently detected phthalates in concentrations up to 5.0, 17 and 85 µg/L, respectively. The fate modeling demonstrated that predicted substance levels in water agreed well with measured levels, whereas the modeled sediment levels were underestimated. Calculation of catchment area emission factors from an urban highway environment revealed that as much as 2.1 kg of total phthalates and 200 g of NP and NPEOs may be emitted per hectare and year. The results indicate that all monitored phthalates, branched NPs and lower NPEOs are present in Swedish urban water systems. The long-chain phthalates DIDP and DINP are believed to occur at higher concentrations than other phthalates because of their higher environmental persistence and their increasing use in Sweden.
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10.
  • Björklund, Karin, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Screening of organic contaminants in urban snow
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings, 14th International Conference, IWA Diffuse Pollution Specialist Group: Diffuse Pollution and Eutrophication. ; s. 270-275
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Snowmelt is known to cause peak concentrations of pollutants which may adversely affect receiving water quality. High concentrations in snow have been shown for e.g. metals and suspended solids, whereas studies on organic pollutants are rarely reported. This study aimsat investigating the occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds in urban snow, and at identifying sources of the pollutants. Snow from sites in Gothenburg, Sweden, was sampled and a range of organic substances was analysed. The most frequently detected organic pollutants in urban snow were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, high molecular-weightphthalates, 4-nonylphenol and 4-octylphenol. Brominated flame retardants and chlorinated paraffins were only sporadically detected. In several snow samples, the concentrations of specific PAHs, alkylphenols and phthalates were higher than reported stormwater concentrations and European water quality standards. Pollutant source identification and sustainable management of snow are important instruments for the mitigation of organic contaminants in the urban environment.
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