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Sökning: WFRF:(Malmqvist Ulf)

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1.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Calcium transients and the effect of a photolytically released calcium chelator during electrically induced contractions in rabbit rectococcygeus smooth muscle
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Biophysical Journal. - Cell Press. - 1542-0086. ; 75:4, s. 1895-1903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracellular Ca2+ was determined with the fura-2 technique during electrically induced contractions in the rabbit rectococcygeus smooth muscle at 22 degreesC. The muscles were electrically activated to give short, reproducible contractions. Intracellular [Ca2+] increased during activation; the increase in [Ca2+] preceded force development by approximately 2 s. After cessation of stimulation Ca2+ fell, preceding the fall in force by approximately 4 s. The fluorescence properties of fura-2 were determined with time-resolved spectroscopy using synchrotron light at the MAX-storage ring, Lund, Sweden. The fluorescence decay of free fura-2 was best described by two exponential decays (time constants approximately 0.5 and 1.5 ns) at low Ca2+ (pCa 9). At high Ca2+ (pCa 4.5), fluorescence decay became slower and could be fitted by one exponential decay (1.9 ns). Time-resolved anisotropy of free fura-2 was characteristic of free rotational motion (correlation time 0.3 ns). Motion of fura-2 could be markedly inhibited by high concentrations of creatine kinase. Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of muscle fibers loaded with fura-2 showed that the fluorescence lifetime of the probe was longer, suggesting an influence of the chemical environment. Anisotropy measurements revealed, however, that the probe was mobile in the cells. The Ca2+-dependence of contraction and relaxation was studied using a photolabile calcium chelator, diazo-2, which could be loaded into the muscle cells in a similar manner as fura-2. Photolysis of diazo-2 leads to an increase in its Ca2+-affinity and a fall in free Ca2+. When muscles that had been loaded with diazo-2 were illuminated with UV light flashes during the rising phase of contraction, the rate of contraction became slower, suggesting a close relation between intracellular Ca2+ and the cross-bridge interaction. In contrast, photolysis during relaxation did not influence the rate of force decay, suggesting that relaxation of these contractions is not determined by the rate of Ca2+ removal or due to an increased Ca2+ sensitivity, but instead is limited by other processes such as deactivation by dephosphorylation or detachment of tension-bearing cross-bridges, possibly regulated by thin filament systems.
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2.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-bridge cycling in smooth muscle: a short review
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 164:4, s. 363-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review is focused on the cross-bridge interaction of the organized contractile system of smooth muscle fibres. By using chemically skinned preparations the different enzymatic reactions of actin-myosin interaction have been associated with mechanical events. A rigor state has been identified in smooth muscle and the binding of ATP causes dissociation of rigor cross-bridges at rates slightly slower than those in skeletal muscle, but fast enough not to be rate-limiting for cross-bridge turn over in the muscle fibre. The release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is associated with force generation, and this process is not rate-limiting for maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) in the fully activated muscle. The binding of ADP to myosin is strong in the smooth muscle contractile system, a property that might be associated with the generally slow cross-bridge turn over. Both force and Vmax are modulated by the extent of myosin light chain phosphorylation. Low levels of activation are considered to be associated with the recruitment of slowly cycling dephosphorylated cross-bridges which reduces shortening velocity. The attachment of these cross-bridge states in skinned smooth muscles can be regulated by cooperative mechanisms and thin filament associated systems. Smooth muscles exhibit a large diversity in their Vmax and the individual smooth muscle tissue can alter its Vmax under physiological conditions. The diversity and the long-term modulation of phenotype are associated with changes in myosin heavy and light chain isoform expression.
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3.
  • Bonnevier, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Sustained norepinephrine contraction in the rat portal vein is lost when Ca(2+) is replaced with Sr(2+).
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 1522-1563. ; 282:4, s. 845-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Agonist-induced activation of smooth muscle involves a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and sensitization of myosin light chain phosphorylation to Ca(2+). Sr(2+) can enter through Ca(2+) channels, be sequestered and released from sarcoplasmic reticulum, and replace Ca(2+) in activation of myosin light chain phosphorylation. Sr(2+) cannot replace Ca(2+) in facilitation of agonist-activated Ca(2+)-dependent nonselective cation channels. It is not known whether Sr(2+) can replace Ca(2+) in small G protein-mediated sensitization of phosphorylation. To explore mechanisms involved in alpha-receptor-activated contractions in smooth muscle, effects of replacing Ca(2+) with Sr(2+) were examined in rat portal vein. Norepinephrine (NE) at
4.
  • Hjortswang, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Contractile properties of ureters from rats with infravesical urinary outlet obstruction
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Urological Research. - Springer. - 0300-5623. ; 26:5, s. 337-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanical properties of ureters from rats with infravesical urinary outflow obstruction were studied in vitro. Urinary outflow obstruction was created by partial ligation of the urethra in female rats. After 10 days a marked hypertrophy of the urinary bladder and a dilatation of the ureters were observed. Proximal and distal segments of the ureters from these animals were isolated and mounted in a wire myograph for force registration. Comparisons were made with ureters from control rats. The ureters from the rats with urinary outflow obstruction exhibited a large increase in lumen diameter and an unchanged thickness of the muscle layer. These data suggest that the dilatation of the ureters is associated with growth of the smooth muscle in the wall. All ureter preparations were relaxed in normal physiological salt solution. When the extracellular K+ concentration was increased to 20 mM the dilated ureters became spontaneously active. At [K+] in the range 20-40 mM in the presence of noradrenaline (10(-5) M) all ureters exhibited high-frequency spontaneous contractions. The dilated ureters had a lower frequency of spontaneous contractions and a higher force. The results show a pronounced remodelling of the ureter wall following infravesical outlet obstruction. The structural changes were associated with alterations in the contraction pattern of the preparations, most probably reflecting changes in the excitation-contraction coupling of the growing cells.
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5.
  • Löfgren, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Substrate and product dependence of force and shortening in fast and slow smooth muscle
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of General Physiology. - Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. - 0022-1295. ; 117:5, s. 407-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the variation in smooth muscle contractile kinetics, the influence of MgATP, MgADP, and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) on force and shortening velocity in thiophosphorylated "fast" (taenia coli: maximal shortening velocity Vmax = 0.11 ML/s) and "slow" (aorta: Vmax = 0.015 ML/s) smooth muscle from the guinea pig were compared. P(i) inhibited active force with minor effects on the V(max). In the taenia coli, 20 mM P(i) inhibited force by 25%. In the aorta, the effect was markedly less (< 10%), suggesting differences between fast and slow smooth muscles in the binding of P(i) or in the relative population of P(i) binding states during cycling. Lowering of MgATP reduced force and V(max). The aorta was less sensitive to reduction in MgATP (Km for Vmax: 80 microM) than the taenia coli (Km for Vmax: 350 microM). Thus, velocity is controlled by steps preceding the ATP binding and cross-bridge dissociation, and a weaker binding of ATP is not responsible for the lower V(max) in the slow muscle. MgADP inhibited force and V(max). Saturating concentrations of ADP did not completely inhibit maximal shortening velocity. The effect of ADP on Vmax was observed at lower concentrations in the aorta compared with the taenia coli, suggesting that the ADP binding to phosphorylated and cycling cross-bridges is stronger in slow compared with fast smooth muscle.
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6.
  • Malmqvist, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Kinetics of contraction in depolarized smooth muscle from guinea-pig taenia coli after photodestruction of nifedipine
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - The Physiological Society. - 1469-7793. ; 519:1, s. 213-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The time course and kinetics of force development following activation by opening of L-type Ca2+ channels was investigated using photodestruction of the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine in smooth muscle from the guinea-pig taenia coli. 2. In muscles activated using high K+ and Ca2+ and subsequently inhibited with nifedipine, photodestruction of the drug using a strong ultraviolet light flash initiated a rapid contraction. The force initiated by photodestruction of nifedipine reached near-maximal levels. This procedure eliminates diffusional delays and can thus be used to investigate the kinetics of depolarization-induced contractions. 3. The rate of force development of contractions initiated by photodestruction of nifedipine was slower than that observed in maximally thiophosphorylated skinned fibres. This suggests the rate of force development is limited by activation steps in the activation cascade prior to the force generation of the cross-bridge system. 4. The rate of force development and the plateau force were dependent on the extracellular [CaCl2] suggesting that the intracellular [Ca2+] determines the rate of phosphorylation and force development. The delay between illumination and increase in force was about 300 ms. The delay was similar at low and high extracellular [CaCl2] indicating that buffering by superficial sarcoplasmatic reticulum does not introduce a delay in force development following activation of Ca2+ channels in this muscle.
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7.
  • Malmqvist, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of force and shortening velocity by calcium and myosin phosphorylation in chemically skinned smooth muscle
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Pflügers Archiv. - Springer. - 0031-6768. ; 433:1-2, s. 42-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) was used to study the relationship between [Ca2+], rates of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and the mechanical properties of smooth muscle fibres. Force/velocity relationships were determined with the isotonic quick release technique in chemically skinned guinea-pig taenia coli muscles at 22 degrees C. In the maximally thiophosphorylated muscle neither OA (10 microM) nor Ca2+ (increase from pCa 9.0 to pCa 4.5) influenced the force-velocity relationship. When the degree of activation was altered by varying [Ca2+] in the presence of 0.5 microM calmodulin, both force and the maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) were altered. At pCa 5.75, at which force was about 35% of the maximal at pCa 4.5, Vmax was 55% of the maximal value. When OA was introduced into fibres at pCa 6.0, force was increased from less than 5% to 100% of the maximal force obtained in pCa 4.5. The relationship between the degree of myosin light chain phosphorylation and force was similar in the two types of activation; varied [OA] at constant [Ca2+] and at varied [Ca2+]. The relation between force and Vmax when the degree of activation was altered with OA was almost identical to that obtained with varied [Ca2+]. The results show that Ca2+ and OA do not influence force or Vmax in the maximally phosphorylated state and suggest that the level of myosin light chain phosphorylation is the major factor determining Vmax. The finding that the relationship between force and Vmax was similar when activation was altered with OA and Ca2+ suggests, however, that alterations in the absolute rates of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at a constant phosphorylation level do not influence the mechanical properties of the skinned smooth muscle fibres.
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8.
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9.
  • Pettersson, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1365-2125. ; 65:2, s. 253-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • What is already known about this subject • The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. • Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. • There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. What this study adds • Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. • Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. • It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. Aim To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Methods Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10–12 days postexercise. Results Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.01) and remained increased for at least 7 days postexercise. Bilirubin, γGT and ALP remained within the normal range. Conclusion The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were significantly increased for at least 7 days after the exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice.
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10.
  • Sjuve, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Increased expression of non-muscle myosin heavy chain-B in connective tissue cells of hypertrophic rat urinary bladder
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - Springer. - 1432-0878. ; 304:2, s. 271-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the non-muscle myosin heavy chain-B (NM-MHC-B, also denoted as the embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, SMemb) was examined in rat urinary bladder during growth in response to a partial urinary outflow obstruction. Following obstruction, the weight of the urinary bladder increased more than five-fold within 10 days. Immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antiserum against the C-terminal sequence of NM-MHC-B revealed very few NM-MHC-B immunoreactive cells in the control urinary bladders. In hypertrophic bladders, the number of NM-MHC-B immunoreactive cells markedly increased. The majority of such cells were found in the interstitium surrounding smooth muscle bundles and also in the subserosal and submucosal layers. Western blot analysis showed that the NM-MHC-B expression was transient; the content of NM-MHC-B immunoreactive material had doubled 10 days after obstruction and then declined towards the control level after 6 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed co-localization of NM-MHC-B and vimentin within the same cells. NM-MHC-B did not co-localize with smooth muscle actin, suggesting that the source of NM-MHC-B is not a de-differentiated smooth muscle cell or myofibroblast but a non-muscle cell possibly reacting to tissue distension or stress. The NM-MHC-B-positive cells could have a role in the production of extracellular matrix and growth factors or be involved in modulation of spontaneous contractile activity.
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