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Sökning: WFRF:(Manojlovic Gacic Emilija)

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1.
  • Manojlovic-Gacic, Emilija, et al. (författare)
  • Histopathology of Parasellar Neoplasms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - : S. Karger AG. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:9/10, s. 740-752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The anatomical and histological complexity of the parasellar region as well as the presence of embryonic remnants determine the huge diversity of parasellar neoplasms. Some of them are only located in the parasellar region, whereas others can occur elsewhere, within or outside the central nervous system. Their spectrum ranges from histologically benign and low-grade malignant to high-grade malignant tumours. Although rare, metastases can pose differential diagnostic dilemmas. The severity of the clinical picture, the challenges of surgery and the risk of adverse sequelae related to surgery or radiotherapy make parasellar tumours interesting entities for the clinicians irrespective of their histological malignancy grade. Due to the different cell origins of parasellar tumours, the World Health Organization classification system does not categorise them as a distinct group. Detailed criteria for classification and malignancy grading are presented in the classification systems covering central nervous system tumours, haematological malignancies and tumours of the soft tissue and bone. In the last few years, molecular genetic features have been integrated into the diagnosis of several types of the parasellar tumours enhancing diagnostic accuracy and providing information of the value for targeting therapies. In this review, we will present histopathological and molecular genetic features, updated classification criteria and recent advances in the diagnostics and rationale for novel pharmacological therapies of selected types of parasellar neoplasms.
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3.
  • Casar Borota, Olivera, et al. (författare)
  • Corticotroph aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas frequently harbour ATRX mutations.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Aggressive pituitary tumours (APTs) are characterised by unusually rapid growth and lack of response to standard treatment. About 1-2% develop metastases being classified as pituitary carcinomas (PCs). For unknown reasons, the corticotroph tumours are overrepresented amongst APTs and PCs. Mutations in the ATRX gene, regulating chromatin remodelling and telomere maintenance, have been implicated in the development of several cancer types, including neuroendocrine tumours.OBJECTIVE: To study ATRX protein expression and mutational status of the ATRX gene in APTs and PCs.DESIGN: We investigated ATRX protein expression by using immunohistochemistry in 30 APTs and 18 PCs, mostly of Pit-1 and T-Pit cell lineage. In tumours lacking ATRX immunolabeling, mutational status of the ATRX gene was explored.RESULTS: Nine of the 48 tumours (19%) demonstrated lack of ATRX immunolabelling with a higher proportion in patients with PCs (5/18 - 28%) than in those with APTs (4/30 - 13%). Lack of ATRX was most common in the corticotroph tumours, 7/22 (32%), vs 2/24 (8%) in the tumours of the Pit-1 lineage. Loss-of-function ATRX mutations were found in all the nine ATRX immuno-negative cases: nonsense mutations (n=4), frameshift deletions (n=4) and large deletions affecting 22-28 of the 36 exons (n=3). More than one ATRX gene defect was identified in two PCs.CONCLUSION: ATRX mutations occur in a subset of aggressive pituitary tumours and are more common in corticotroph tumours. The findings provide a rationale for performing ATRX immunohistochemistry to identify patients at risk of developing aggressive and potentially metastatic pituitary tumours.
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4.
  • Manojlovic-Gacic, Emilija, et al. (författare)
  • Histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 21:2, s. 119-129
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do not cause endocrine symptoms related to hypersecretion of adenohypophyseal hormones and are clinically characterized by symptoms due to growing sellar tumor mass. Histopathological classification of this tumor group has always been challenging due to their heterogeneity, limited knowledge on their biology, and diverse methodological problems. We have searched PubMed database for data related to the histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary tumors and methods for its application. Principles of the classification and grading presented in the recently released 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors have been summarized. Based on the expression of anterior pituitary hormones and pituitary specific transcription factors, gonadotroph tumors dominate within the group of clinically non-functioning tumors, followed by corticotroph type; however, other less common types of the non-functioning tumors can be identified. Assessment of tumor cell proliferation is important to identify "high-risk adenomas." A few subtypes of non-functioning tumors belong to the category of potentially aggressive tumors, independent of the cell proliferation rate. Here, we present up to date criteria for the classification of clinically non-functioning pituitary tumors, offer a diagnostic approach for the routine clinical use, and emphasize a need for inclusion of prognostic and predictive markers in the classification.
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5.
  • Manojlovic-Gacic, Emilija, et al. (författare)
  • Oncogene-Induced Senescence in Pituitary Adenomas-an Immunohistochemical Study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Endocrine pathology. - 1046-3976 .- 1559-0097. ; 27:1, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) serves as an initial barrier to cancer development, being proposed as a possible explanation for the usually benign behavior of the pituitary adenomas. We aimed to explore the immunohistochemical expression of the OIS markers, senescence-associated lysosomal β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL), p16, and p21 in different types of 345 pituitary adenomas and compared it with the expression in the normal pituitary and in the specimens from the repeated surgeries. SA-β-GAL was overexpressed in the pituitary adenomas, compared to the normal pituitaries. Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas showed the strongest SA-β-GAL, with densely granulated (DG)-GH adenomas more reactive than the sparsely granulated (SG). Nuclear p21 was decreased in the adenomas, except for the SG-GH adenomas that had higher p21 than the normal pituitaries and the other adenomas. p16 was significantly lower in the adenomas, without type-related differences. SA-β-GAL was slightly lower and p16 slightly higher in the recurrences. Our findings indicate alterations of the senescence program in the different types of pituitary adenomas. Activation of senescence in the pituitary adenomas presents one possible explanation for their usually benign behavior, at least in the GH adenomas that show a synchronous increase of two OIS markers. However, subdivision into GH adenoma subtypes reveals differences that reflect complex regulatory mechanisms influenced by the interplay between the granularity pattern and the hormonal factors, with possible impact on the different clinical behavior of the SG- and DG-GH adenoma subtypes. p16 seems to have a more prominent role in the pituitary tumorigenesis than in the senescence. Recurrent growth in a subset of the pituitary adenomas is not associated with consistent changes in the senescence pattern.
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