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Sökning: WFRF:(Manzanares J)

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  • Romanelli, F., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 55:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the installation of an ITER-like wall, the JET programme has focused on the consolidation of ITER design choices and the preparation for ITER operation, with a specific emphasis given to the bulk tungsten melt experiment, which has been crucial for the final decision on the material choice for the day-one tungsten divertor in ITER. Integrated scenarios have been progressed with the re-establishment of long-pulse, high-confinement H-modes by optimizing the magnetic configuration and the use of ICRH to avoid tungsten impurity accumulation. Stationary discharges with detached divertor conditions and small edge localized modes have been demonstrated by nitrogen seeding. The differences in confinement and pedestal behaviour before and after the ITER-like wall installation have been better characterized towards the development of high fusion yield scenarios in DT. Post-mortem analyses of the plasma-facing components have confirmed the previously reported low fuel retention obtained by gas balance and shown that the pattern of deposition within the divertor has changed significantly with respect to the JET carbon wall campaigns due to the absence of thermally activated chemical erosion of beryllium in contrast to carbon. Transport to remote areas is almost absent and two orders of magnitude less material is found in the divertor.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
  • de Rojas, I., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants in Alzheimer’s disease and risk stratification by polygenic risk scores
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Nature. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer’s disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer’s disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer’s disease patients in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer’s disease. © 2021, The Author(s).
  • Ferizi, Uran, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion MRI microstructure models with in vivo human brain Connectome data : Results from a multi-group comparison
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NMR in Biomedicine. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0952-3480 .- 1099-1492. ; 30:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference. This competition aimed to compare a range of different kinds of models in their ability to explain a large range of measurable in vivo DW human brain data. Specifically, we assessed the ability of models to predict the DW signal accurately for new diffusion gradients and b values. We did not evaluate the accuracy of estimated model parameters, as a ground truth is hard to obtain. We used the Connectome scanner at the Massachusetts General Hospital, using gradient strengths of up to 300mT/m and a broad set of diffusion times. We focused on assessing the DW signal prediction in two regions: the genu in the corpus callosum, where the fibres are relatively straight and parallel, and the fornix, where the configuration of fibres is more complex. The challenge participants had access to three-quarters of the dataset and their models were ranked on their ability to predict the remaining unseen quarter of the data. The challenge provided a unique opportunity for a quantitative comparison of diverse methods from multiple groups worldwide. The comparison of the challenge entries reveals interesting trends that could potentially influence the next generation of diffusion-based quantitative MRI techniques. The first is that signal models do not necessarily outperform tissue models; in fact, of those tested, tissue models rank highest on average. The second is that assuming a non-Gaussian (rather than purely Gaussian) noise model provides little improvement in prediction of unseen data, although it is possible that this may still have a beneficial effect on estimated parameter values. The third is that preprocessing the training data, here by omitting signal outliers, and using signal-predicting strategies, such as bootstrapping or cross-validation, could benefit the model fitting. The analysis in this study provides a benchmark for other models and the data remain available to build up a more complete comparison in the future.
  • Tubert-Jeannin, S., et al. (författare)
  • O-Health-Edu : Advancing oral health: A vision for dental education
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health. - : Oxford University Press. - 1101-1262 .- 1464-360X. ; 30:s5, s. V764-V764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The prevalence and burden of untreated oral diseases throughout the life course remains high worldwide, and inequalities in oral health and dental care are increasing. This is a major public health issue that is not being enough addressed by the health care systems. To better manage populations' oral health, oral health professionals must be trained to adapt to population needs and societal and technological changes. Furthermore, dental institutions must fulfill their social responsibility by prioritizing educational and research activities that promote advancing individual and community health. In Europe, great variability exists between dental programs within the same country or between countries. This variability is an issue as European graduates can practice around the European Union through mutual recognition of their qualifications. This might lead to inequities in the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health services. The convergence of competencies and quality standards at the international level must thus be better clearly identified, defined and improved. The purpose of the O-Health-Edu, EU funded project, “Advancing Oral Health: A vision for Dental Education” is thus to assess the current situation concerning the oral health professionals' education (OHP) and to identify educational priorities so that future graduating OHPs have competencies aligned with emerging population needs. The project is supported within the KA203 - “Cooperation for Innovation and the Exchange of Good Practices - Strategic Partnerships for higher education” Erasmus program. It began in October 2019 for three years, with eight European university partners and the ADEE (Association for Dental Education in Europe). The firsts steps consist of a scoping review to identify the available information followed by a questionnaire survey to gather more comprehensive data so that to build an opened data source, and a glossary of dental education terms.Key messages Few Information about the current situation of dental education in Europe.Graduates must be equipped with adequate competencies to face populations needs.
  • Dalmau-Pastor, M., et al. (författare)
  • The anterior tibiofibular ligament has a constant distal fascicle that contacts the anterolateral part of the talus
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy. - 0942-2056. ; 28:1, s. 48-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) and its distal fascicle have been the subject of numerous studies, mainly due to the involvement of this ligament in anterolateral soft-tissue impingement of the ankle. There is currently no firm evidence related to the incidence of the distal fascicle or the frequency with which it is in contact with the talus, or whether this is a constant anatomic finding. In addition, the terminology used to refer to this structure is not accurate and varies widely in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to perform an anatomic study on a large number of specimens to clarify the anatomy of the anterior tibiofibular ligament, and specifically its distal fascicle, and its possible role in anterior ankle impingement syndrome. Methods During a 7-year period (2010-2016), cadaveric ankle specimens dissected at our Anatomy Department were included in this study, accounting for a total of 154 ankles. The incidence of the distal fascicle and its contact with the talus were documented. Results One hundred and seventeen ankles were included [78 men, 39 women, with a median age of 79.3 years (range 51-100 years)]. The ATiFL was found to have a distal fascicle in 100% of ankles, contacting the anterolateral part of the talus in all cases. The contact was increased in plantarflexion and reduced in dorsiflexion and finally disappeared completely in maximum dorsiflexion. Conclusions The ATiFL has a constant distal fascicle that is in contact with the talus in the neutral position and in plantar flexion. Contact disappears in maximum dorsiflexion.
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