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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Maoz D.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Maoz D.)

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1.
  • Ryu, Y. -H., et al. (författare)
  • OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb : The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, which is likely to be the first Spitzer microlensing planet in the Galactic bulge/ bar, an assignation that can be confirmed by two epochs of high-resolution imaging of the combined source-lens baseline object. The planet's mass, M-p = 13.4 +/- 0.9 M-J, places it right at the deuteriumburning limit, i. e., the conventional boundary between planets and brown dwarfs. Its existence raises the question of whether such objects are really planets (formed within the disks of their hosts) or failed stars (lowmass objects formed by gas fragmentation). This question may ultimately be addressed by comparing disk and bulge/bar planets, which is a goal of the Spitzer microlens program. The host is a G dwarf, M-host = 0.89. +/- 0.07 M-circle dot, and the planet has a semimajor axis a similar to 2.0 au. We use Kepler K2 Campaign 9 microlensing data to break the lens-mass degeneracy that generically impacts parallax solutions from Earth-Spitzer observations alone, which is the first successful application of this approach. The microlensing data, derived primarily from near-continuous, ultradense survey observations from OGLE, MOA, and three KMTNet telescopes, contain more orbital information than for any previous microlensing planet, but not quite enough to accurately specify the full orbit. However, these data do permit the first rigorous test of microlensing orbital-motion measurements, which are typically derived from data taken over < 1% of an orbital period.
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2.
  • Novak, R., et al. (författare)
  • Robotic fluidic coupling and interrogation of multiple vascularized organ chips
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Biomedical Engineering. - : Nature Research. - 2157-846X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organ chips can recapitulate organ-level (patho)physiology, yet pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses require multi-organ systems linked by vascular perfusion. Here, we describe an ‘interrogator’ that employs liquid-handling robotics, custom software and an integrated mobile microscope for the automated culture, perfusion, medium addition, fluidic linking, sample collection and in situ microscopy imaging of up to ten organ chips inside a standard tissue-culture incubator. The robotic interrogator maintained the viability and organ-specific functions of eight vascularized, two-channel organ chips (intestine, liver, kidney, heart, lung, skin, blood–brain barrier and brain) for 3 weeks in culture when intermittently fluidically coupled via a common blood substitute through their reservoirs of medium and endothelium-lined vascular channels. We used the robotic interrogator and a physiological multicompartmental reduced-order model of the experimental system to quantitatively predict the distribution of an inulin tracer perfused through the multi-organ human-body-on-chips. The automated culture system enables the imaging of cells in the organ chips and the repeated sampling of both the vascular and interstitial compartments without compromising fluidic coupling.
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3.
  • Clavel, J., et al. (författare)
  • Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. An 8 month campaign of monitoring NGC 5548 with IUE
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 366:1, s. 64-8181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors present emission-line and ultraviolet continuum observations of a type I Seyfert galaxy in which the time resolution is adequate for describing the character of variability. Using the IUE satellite, the nucleus of NGC 5548 was observed every 4 days for a period of 8 months. Its mean properties-continuum shape, line ratios-are not unusual for type I Seyfert galaxies, but it was found to be strongly variable. The ultraviolet continuum flux and broad emission line fluxes varied significantly, going through three large maxima and three deep minima. The great majority of all variations were well resolved in time. The data lend qualitative support to the view that photoionization by the nuclear continuum is responsible for driving the emission lines
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4.
  • Edelson, R. A., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. IV. Analysis of multiwavelength continuum variability
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 364-377377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For pt.III see ibid., vol.470, no.1, p.349-63 (1996). Combines data from the three preceding papers in order to analyze the multi wave-band variability and spectral energy distribution of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 during the 1993 December monitoring campaign. The source, which was near its peak historical brightness, showed strong, correlated variability at X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical wavelengths. The strongest variations were seen in medium-energy (~1.5 keV) X-rays, with a normalized variability amplitude (NVA) of 24%. Weaker (NVA=6%) variations (uncorrelated with those at lower energies) were seen at soft gamma-ray energies of ~100 keV. No significant variability was seen in softer (0.1-1 keV) X-ray bands. In the ultraviolet/optical regime, the NVA decreased from 9% to 1% as the wavelength increased from 1275 to 6900 Aring. These data do not probe extreme ultraviolet (1200 Aring to 0.1 keV) or hard X-ray (250 keV) variability. The phase differences between variations in different bands were consistent with zero lag, with upper limits of lsim0.15 day between 1275 Aring and the other ultraviolet bands, lsim0.3 day between 1275 Aring and 1.5 keV, and lsim1 day between 1275 and 5125 Aring. These tight limits represent more than an order of magnitude improvement over those determined in previous multi-wave-band AGN monitoring campaigns. The ultraviolet fluctuation power spectra showed no evidence for periodicity, but were instead well fitted with a very steep, red power law (ales-2.5)
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5.
  • Crenshaw, D. M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiwavelength observations of short-timescale variability in NGC 4151. I. Ultraviolet observations
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 470:1, s. 322-335335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Presents the results of an intensive ultraviolet monitoring campaign on the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, as part of an effort to study its short-timescale variability over a broad range in wavelength. The nucleus of NGC 4151 was observed continuously with the International Ultraviolet Explorer for 9.3 days, yielding a pair of LWP and SWP spectra every ~70 minutes, and during 4 hr periods for 4 days prior to and 5 days after the continuous-monitoring period. The sampling frequency of the observations is an order of magnitude higher than that of any previous UV monitoring campaign on a Seyfert galaxy. The continuum fluxes in bands from 1275 to 2688 Aring went through four significant and well-defined ldquoeventsrdquo of duration 2-3 days during the continuous-monitoring period. The authors find that the amplitudes of the continuum variations decrease with increasing wavelength, which extends a general trend for this and other Seyfert galaxies to smaller timescales (i.e., a few days). The continuum variations in all the UV bands are simultaneous to within an accuracy of ~0.15 days, providing a strict constraint on continuum models. The emission-line light curves show only one major event during the continuous monitoring (a slow rise followed by a shallow dip) and do not correlate well with continuum light curves over the short duration of the campaign, because the timescale for continuum variations is apparently smaller than the response times of the emission lines
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6.
  • Herland, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative prediction of human pharmacokinetic responses to drugs via fluidically coupled vascularized organ chips
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Biomedical Engineering. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2157-846X. ; 4:4, s. 421-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyses of drug pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) performed in animals are often not predictive of drug PKs and PDs in humans, and in vitro PK and PD modelling does not provide quantitative PK parameters. Here, we show that physiological PK modelling of first-pass drug absorption, metabolism and excretion in humans—using computationally scaled data from multiple fluidically linked two-channel organ chips—predicts PK parameters for orally administered nicotine (using gut, liver and kidney chips) and for intravenously injected cisplatin (using coupled bone marrow, liver and kidney chips). The chips are linked through sequential robotic liquid transfers of a common blood substitute by their endothelium-lined channels (as reported by Novak et al. in an associated Article) and share an arteriovenous fluid-mixing reservoir. We also show that predictions of cisplatin PDs match previously reported patient data. The quantitative in-vitro-to-in-vivo translation of PK and PD parameters and the prediction of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity through fluidically coupled organ chips may improve the design of drug-administration regimens for phase-I clinical trials.
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7.
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8.
  • Lehmann-Werman, Roni, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 113:13, s. E1826-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods rely on differences in DNA sequences in source tissues, so that cell death cannot be identified in tissues with a normal genome. We developed a method of detecting tissue-specific cell death in humans based on tissue-specific methylation patterns in cfDNA. We interrogated tissue-specific methylome databases to identify cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures and developed a method to detect these signatures in mixed DNA samples. We isolated cfDNA from plasma or serum of donors, treated the cfDNA with bisulfite, PCR-amplified the cfDNA, and sequenced it to quantify cfDNA carrying the methylation markers of the cell type of interest. Pancreatic β-cell DNA was identified in the circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes and islet-graft recipients; oligodendrocyte DNA was identified in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis; neuronal/glial DNA was identified in patients after traumatic brain injury or cardiac arrest; and exocrine pancreas DNA was identified in patients with pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the tissue origins of cfDNA and thus the rate of death of specific cell types can be determined in humans. The approach can be adapted to identify cfDNA derived from any cell type in the body, offering a minimally invasive window for diagnosing and monitoring a broad spectrum of human pathologies as well as providing a better understanding of normal tissue dynamics.
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9.
  • Maoz, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • A linked organ-on-chip model of the human neurovascular unit reveals the metabolic coupling of endothelial and neuronal cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 36:9, s. 865-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neurovascular unit (NVU) regulates metabolic homeostasis as well as drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the central nervous system. Metabolic fluxes and conversions over the NVU rely on interactions between brain microvascular endothelium, perivascular pericytes, astrocytes and neurons, making it difficult to identify the contributions of each cell type. Here we model the human NVU using microfluidic organ chips, allowing analysis of the roles of individual cell types in NVU functions. Three coupled chips model influx across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the brain parenchymal compartment and efflux across the BBB. We used this linked system to mimic the effect of intravascular administration of the psychoactive drug methamphetamine and to identify previously unknown metabolic coupling between the BBB and neurons. Thus, the NVU system offers an in vitro approach for probing transport, efficacy, mechanism of action and toxicity of neuroactive drugs.
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10.
  • Nikolakopoulou, Polyxeni, et al. (författare)
  • Recent progress in translational engineered in vitro models of the central nervous system
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The complexity of the human brain poses a substantial challenge for the development of models of the CNS. Current animal models lack many essential human characteristics (in addition to raising operational challenges and ethical concerns), and conventional in vitro models, in turn, are limited in their capacity to provide information regarding many functional and systemic responses. Indeed, these challenges may underlie the notoriously low success rates of CNS drug development efforts. During the past 5 years, there has been a leap in the complexity and functionality of in vitro systems of the CNS, which have the potential to overcome many of the limitations of traditional model systems. The availability of human-derived induced pluripotent stem cell technology has further increased the translational potential of these systems. Yet, the adoption of state-of-the-art in vitro platforms within the CNS research community is limited. This may be attributable to the high costs or the immaturity of the systems. Nevertheless, the costs of fabrication have decreased, and there are tremendous ongoing efforts to improve the quality of cell differentiation. Herein, we aim to raise awareness of the capabilities and accessibility of advanced in vitro CNS technologies. We provide an overview of some of the main recent developments (since 2015) in in vitro CNS models. In particular, we focus on engineered in vitro models based on cell culture systems combined with microfluidic platforms (e.g. 'organ-on-a-chip' systems). We delve into the fundamental principles underlying these systems and review several applications of these platforms for the study of the CNS in health and disease. Our discussion further addresses the challenges that hinder the implementation of advanced in vitro platforms in personalized medicine or in large-scale industrial settings, and outlines the existing differentiation protocols and industrial cell sources. We conclude by providing practical guidelines for laboratories that are considering adopting organ-on-a-chip technologies.
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