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Sökning: WFRF:(Markevych Iana)

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1.
  • Kuiper, I. N., et al. (författare)
  • Associations of Preconception Exposure to Air Pollution and Greenness with Offspring Asthma and Hay Fever
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1660-4601 .- 1661-7827. ; 17:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM(2.5)and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O-3) (mu g/m(3)) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM(2.5)and PM(10)exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O(3)exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM(10)exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM(10)exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O(3)exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.
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2.
  • Nordeide Kuiper, I., et al. (författare)
  • Lifelong exposure to air pollution and greenness in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function in adulthood
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate if air pollution and greenness exposure from birth till adulthood affects adult asthma, rhinitis and lung function. Methods: We analysed data from 3428 participants (mean age 28) in the RHINESSA study in Norway and Sweden. Individual mean annual residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were averaged across susceptibility windows (0–10 years, 10–18 years, lifetime, adulthood (year before study participation)) and analysed in relation to physician diagnosed asthma (ever/allergic/non-allergic), asthma attack last 12 months, current rhinitis and low lung function (lower limit of normal (LLN), z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC below 1.64). We performed logistic regression for asthma attack, rhinitis and LLN lung function (clustered with family and study centre), and conditional logistic regression with a matched case-control design for ever/allergic/non-allergic asthma. Multivariable models were adjusted for parental asthma and education. Results: Childhood, adolescence and adult exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 were associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks (ORs between 1.29 and 2.25), but not with physician diagnosed asthma. For rhinitis, adulthood exposures seemed to be most important. Childhood and adolescence exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with lower lung function, in particular FEV1 (range ORs 2.65 to 4.21). No associations between NDVI and asthma or rhinitis were revealed, but increased NDVI was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC in all susceptibility windows (range ORs 1.39 to 1.74). Conclusions: Air pollution exposures in childhood, adolescence and adulthood were associated with increased risk of asthma attacks, rhinitis and low lung function in adulthood. Greenness was not associated with asthma or rhinitis, but was a risk factor for low lung function. © 2020 The Authors
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3.
  • Dzhambov, Angel M., et al. (författare)
  • Analytical approaches to testing pathways linking greenspace to health : A scoping review of the empirical literature
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 186
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inadequate translation from theoretical to statistical models of the greenspace - health relationship may lead to incorrect conclusions about the importance of some pathways, which in turn may reduce the effectiveness of public health interventions involving urban greening. In this scoping review we aimed to: (1) summarize the general characteristics of approaches to intervening variable inference (mediation analysis) employed in epidemiological research in the field; (2) identify potential threats to the validity of findings; and (3) propose recommendations for planning, conducting, and reporting mediation analyses.Methods: We conducted a scoping review, searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published by December 31, 2019. The list of potential studies was continuously updated through other sources until March 2020. Narrative presentation of the results was coupled with descriptive summary of study characteristics.Results: We found 106 studies, most of which were cross-sectional in design. Most studies only had a spatial measure of greenspace. Mental health/well-being was the most commonly studied outcome, and physical activity and air pollution were the most commonly tested intervening variables. Most studies only conducted single mediation analysis, even when multiple potentially intertwined mediators were measured. The analytical approaches used were causal steps, difference-of-coefficients, product-of-coefficients, counterfactual framework, and structural equation modelling (SEM). Bootstrapping was the most commonly used method to construct the 95% CI of the indirect effect. The product-of-coefficients method and SEM as used to investigate serial mediation components were more likely to yield findings of indirect effect. In some cases, the causal steps approach thwarted tests of indirect effect, even though both links in an indirect effect were supported. In most studies, sensitivity analyses and proper methodological discussion of the modelling approach were missing.Conclusions: We found a persistent pattern of suboptimal conduct and reporting of mediation analysis in epidemiological studies investigating pathways linking greenspace to health; however, recent years have seen improvements in these respects. Better planning, conduct, and reporting of mediation analyses are warranted.
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4.
  • Dzhambov, Angel M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple pathways link urban green- and bluespace to mental health in young adults
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - : Elsevier. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 166, s. 223-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A growing body of scientific literature indicates that urban green- and bluespace support mental health; however, little research has attempted to address the complexities in likely interrelations among the pathways through which benefits plausibly are realized. Objectives: The present study examines how different plausible pathways between green/bluespace and mental health can work together. Both objective and perceived measures of green- and bluespace are used in these models. Methods: We sampled 720 students from the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Residential greenspace was measured in terms of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover density, percentage of green areas, and Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Bluespace was measured in terms of its presence in the neighborhood and the Euclidean distance to the nearest bluespace. Mental health was measured with the 12-item form of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The following mediators were considered: perceived neighborhood green/bluespace, restorative quality of the neighborhood, social cohesion, physical activity, noise and air pollution, and environmental annoyance. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results: Higher NDVI within a 300 m buffer around the residence was associated with better mental health through higher perceived greenspace; through higher perceived greenspace, leading to increased restorative quality, and subsequently to increased physical activity (i.e., serial mediation); through lower noise exposure, which in turn was associated with lower annoyance; and through higher perceived greenspace, which was associated with lower annoyance. Presence of bluespace within a 300 m buffer did not have a straightforward association with mental health owing to competitive indirect paths: one supporting mental health through higher perceived bluespace, restorative quality, and physical activity; and another engendering mental ill-health through higher noise exposure and annoyance. Conclusions: We found evidence that having more greenspace near the residence supported mental health through several indirect pathways with serial components. Conversely, bluespace was not clearly associated with mental health.
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5.
  • Dzhambov, Angel, et al. (författare)
  • Urban residential greenspace and mental health in youth : Different approaches to testing multiple pathways yield different conclusions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 160, s. 47-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Urban greenspace can benefit mental health through multiple mechanisms. They may work together, but previous studies have treated them as independent.Objectives: We aimed to compare single and parallel mediation models, which estimate the independent contributions of different paths, to several models that posit serial mediation components in the pathway from greenspace to mental health.Methods: We collected cross-sectional survey data from 399 participants (15-25 years of age) in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Objective "exposure" to urban residential greenspace was defined by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, tree cover density within the 500-m buffer, and Euclidean distance to the nearest urban greenspace. Self-reported measures of availability, access, quality, and usage of greenspace were also used. Mental health was measured with the General Health Questionnaire. The following potential mediators were considered in single and parallel mediation models: restorative quality of the neighborhood, neighborhood social cohesion, commuting and leisure time physical activity, road traffic noise annoyance, and perceived air pollution. Four models were tested with the following serial mediation components: (1) restorative quality -> social cohesion; (2) restorative quality -> physical activity; (3) perceived traffic pollution -> restorative quality; (4) and noise annoyance -> physical activity.Results: There was no direct association between objectively-measured greenspace and mental health. For the 500-m buffer, the tests of the single mediator models suggested that restorative quality mediated the relationship between NDVI and mental health. Tests of parallel mediation models did not find any significant indirect effects. In line with theory, tests of the serial mediation models showed that higher restorative quality was associated with more physical activity and more social cohesion, and in turn with better mental health. As for self-reported greenspace measures, single mediation through restorative quality was significant only for time in greenspace, and there was no mediation though restorative quality in the parallel mediation models; however, serial mediation through restorative quality and social cohesion/physical activity was indicated for all self-reported measures except for greenspace quality.Conclusions: Statistical models should adequately address the theoretically indicated interdependencies between mechanisms underlying association between greenspace and mental health. If such causal relationships hold, testing mediators alone or in parallel may lead to incorrect inferences about the relative contribution of specific paths, and thus to inappropriate intervention strategies.
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6.
  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 120, s. 364-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.
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7.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with sick leave 20 years later
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on outdoor air pollution in a long-term perspective and societal costs such as sick leave. In the Nordic countries, recent pollution health impact assessments have had to rely on outdated studies.Aims: To investigate if air pollution exposure is associated with sick leave 20 years later.Methods: We analysed self-reported sick leave (all-cause and respiratory) in 7 466 subjects from Bergen, Gothenburg, Umea, Uppsala in the RHINE3 study in 2010-12. Home addresses were geocoded and linked to annual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 at RHINE3, 10 years earlier and 20 years earlier, using existing land-use regression (LUR) models. We performed multilevel logistic regression clustered by centre, and adjusted for sex, smoking, education and previous health-related workplace change.Results: Age range in RHINE3 was 40-66 yrs, 34% and 4% reported all-cause and respiratory sick leave during the last year. In the adjusted analyses all-cause sick leave was associated with PM2.520 years earlier (OR per interquartile range (IQR) difference (2.6 µg/m³) 1.12 (95%CI 1.01, 1.24)), and borderline with NO2 (OR per IQR diff (8.1 µg/m³) 1.09 (95%CI 0.99, 1.19)). Respiratory sick leave was associated with PM10 20 years earlier (OR per IQR diff (3.92 µg/m³) 1.54 (95%CI 1.06, 2.25)), and borderline with PM2.5 (OR per IQR diff 1.31 (95%CI 0.97, 1.76)). Pollution exposures at present as well as 10 years earlier were not significantly associated with sick leave.Conclusions: Air pollution exposure in a general population is associated with sick leave in a 20-year perspective. Our findings suggest that even low air pollution levels such as in Northern Europe have societal costs over time.
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8.
  • Kuiper, Ingrid Nordeide, et al. (författare)
  • Lung health in adulthood after childhood exposure to air pollution and greenness
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Little is known on childhood exposure to air pollution and adult chronic respiratory outcomes.Aim: To investigate associations between air pollution and greenness in childhood and adult lung health.Methods: In selected centres of the RHINESSA study (age 18-52) we analysed the outcomes respiratory symptoms (≥3 symptoms), severe wheeze (wheeze last year with breathlessness, no cold) and late onset asthma (>10 years). We calculated mean annual exposures of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 (µg/m³) and greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, 100m buffer) from offspring's birth till age 18, categorised into mean exposure <10 years and 11-18 years. We performed multilevel logistic regression clustered by family, stratified by centre and adjusted for childhood passive smoke and parental asthma.Results: 12% had ≥3 respiratory symptoms, 7.7% severe wheeze, and 9.4% late onset asthma. Overall estimates: greenness was associated with less respiratory symptoms, PM2.5 and NO2 with more late onset asthma. Exposure <10 years: Greenness was associated with less wheeze in Tartu (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.11-0.73). PM2.5 (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.00-1.48) and NO2 (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.11) were risk factors for late onset asthma in Bergen. PM10 was a risk factor for respiratory symptoms (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.04-1.41) in Uppsala and late onset asthma (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.02-1.45) in Bergen. Exposure 11-18 years: Greenness was protective for respiratory symptoms (OR 0.29, 95%CI 0.10-0.86) and wheeze (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.19-0.80) in Tartu.Conclusions: Childhood exposure to greenness was associated with less respiratory symptoms, while air pollutants were associated with more respiratory symptoms (some centres) and late onset asthma.
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9.
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10.
  • Markevych, Iana, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring pathways linking greenspace to health : theoretical and methodological guidance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 158, s. 301-317
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear.Objectives: During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research.Discussions: Potential pathways linking greenspace to health are here presented in three domains, which emphasize three general functions of greenspace: reducing harm (e.g. reducing exposure to air pollution, noise and heat), restoring capacities (e.g. attention restoration and physiological stress recovery) and building capacities (e.g. encouraging physical activity and facilitating social cohesion). Interrelations between among the three domains are also noted. Among several recommendations, future studies should: use greenspace and behavioural measures that are relevant to hypothesized pathways; include assessment of presence, access and use of greenspace; use longitudinal, interventional and (quasi)experimental study designs to assess causation; and include low and middle income countries given their absence in the existing literature. Cultural, climatic, geographic and other contextual factors also need further consideration.Conclusions: While the existing evidence affirms beneficial impacts of greenspace on health, much remains to be learned about the specific pathways and functional form of such relationships, and how these may vary by context, population groups and health outcomes. This Report provides guidance for further epidemiological research with the goal of creating new evidence upon which to develop policy recommendations.
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