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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Martikainen Pertti J.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Martikainen Pertti J.)

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1.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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2.
  • Petrescu, Ana Maria Roxana, et al. (författare)
  • The uncertain climate footprint of wetlands under human pressure
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 112:15, s. 4594-4599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Significant climate risks are associated with a positive carbon-temperature feedback in northern latitude carbon-rich ecosystems, making an accurate analysis of human impacts on the net greenhouse gas balance of wetlands a priority. Here, we provide a coherent assessment of the climate footprint of a network of wetland sites based on simultaneous and quasi-continuous ecosystem observations of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. Experimental areas are located both in natural and in managed wetlands and cover a wide range of climatic regions, ecosystem types, and management practices. Based on direct observations we predict that sustained CH4 emissions in natural ecosystems are in the long term (i.e., several centuries) typically offset by CO2 uptake, although with large spatiotemporal variability. Using a space-for-time analogy across ecological and climatic gradients, we represent the chronosequence from natural to managed conditions to quantify the "cost" of CH4 emissions for the benefit of net carbon sequestration. With a sustained pulse-response radiative forcing model, we found a significant increase in atmospheric forcing due to land management, in particular for wetland converted to cropland. Our results quantify the role of human activities on the climate footprint of northern wetlands and call for development of active mitigation strategies for managed wetlands and new guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) accounting for both sustained CH4 emissions and cumulative CO2 exchange.
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3.
  • Santruckova, Hana (författare)
  • Significance of dark CO2 fixation in arctic soils
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. - 0038-0717 .- 1879-3428. ; 119, s. 11-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The occurrence of dark fixation of CO2 by heterotrophic microorganisms in soil is generally accepted, but its importance for microbial metabolism and soil organic carbon (C) sequestration is unknown, especially under C limiting conditions. To fill this knowledge gap, we measured dark (CO2)-C-13 incorporation into soil organic matter and conducted a C-13-labelling experiment to follow the C-13 incorporation into phospholipid fatty acids as microbial biomass markers across soil profiles of four tundra ecosystems in the northern circumpolar region, where net primary productivity and thus soil C inputs are low. We further determined the abundance of various carboxylase genes and identified their microbial origin with metagenomics. The microbial capacity for heterotrophic CO2 fixation was determined by measuring the abundance of carboxylase genes and the incorporation of C-13 into soil C following the augmentation of bioavailable C sources. We demonstrate that dark CO2 fixation occurred ubiquitously in arctic tundra soils, with increasing importance in deeper soil horizons, presumably due to increasing C limitation with soil depth. Dark CO2 fixation accounted on average for 0.4, 1.0, 1.1, and 16% of net respiration in the organic, cryoturbated organic, mineral and permafrost horizons, respectively. Genes encoding anaplerotic enzymes of heterotrophic microorganisms comprised the majority of identified carboxylase genes. The genetic potential for dark CO2 fixation was spread over a broad taxonomic range. The results suggest important regulatory function of CO2 fixation in C limited conditions. The measurements were corroborated by modeling the long-term impact of dark CO2 fixation on soil organic matter. Our results suggest that increasing relative CO2 fixation rates in deeper soil horizons play an important role for soil internal C cycling and can, at least in part, explain the isotopic enrichment with soil depth.
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4.
  • Treat, Claire C., et al. (författare)
  • Tundra landscape heterogeneity, not interannual variability, controls the decadal regional carbon balance in the Western Russian Arctic
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 24:11, s. 5188-5204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Across the Arctic, the net ecosystem carbon (C) balance of tundra ecosystems is highly uncertain due to substantial temporal variability of C fluxes and to landscape heterogeneity. We modeled both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes for the dominant land cover types in a ~100-km2 sub-Arctic tundra region in northeast European Russia for the period of 2006–2015 using process-based biogeochemical models. Modeled net annual CO2 fluxes ranged from −300 g C m−2 year−1 [net uptake] in a willow fen to 3 g C m−2 year−1 [net source] in dry lichen tundra. Modeled annual CH4 emissions ranged from −0.2 to 22.3 g C m−2 year−1 at a peat plateau site and a willow fen site, respectively. Interannual variability over the decade was relatively small (20%–25%) in comparison with variability among the land cover types (150%). Using high-resolution land cover classification, the region was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 across most land cover types but a net source of CH4 to the atmosphere due to high emissions from permafrost-free fens. Using a lower resolution for land cover classification resulted in a 20%–65% underestimation of regional CH4 flux relative to high-resolution classification and smaller (10%) overestimation of regional CO2 uptake due to the underestimation of wetland area by 60%. The relative fraction of uplands versus wetlands was key to determining the net regional C balance at this and other Arctic tundra sites because wetlands were hot spots for C cycling in Arctic tundra ecosystems.
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5.
  • Morsky, Sami K., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term ozone effects on vegetation, microbial community and methane dynamics of boreal peatland microcosms in open-field conditions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013. ; 14:8, s. 1891-1903
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the effects of elevated ozone concentration on methane dynamics and a sedge species, Eriophorum vaginatum, we exposed peatland microcosms, isolated by coring from an oligotrophic pine fen, to double ambient ozone concentration in an open-air ozone exposure field for four growing seasons. The field consists of eight circular plots of which four were fumigated with elevated ozone concentration and four were ambient controls. At the latter part of the first growing season (week 33, 2003), the methane emission was 159 +/- 14 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1) (mean +/- SE) in the ozone treatment and 214 +/- 8 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1) under the ambient control. However, towards the end of the experiment the ozone treatment slightly, but consistently, enhanced the methane emission. At the end of the third growing season (2005), microbial biomass (estimated by phospholipid fatty acid biomarkers) was higher in peat exposed to ozone (1975 +/- 108 nmol g(-1) dw) than in peat of the control microcosms (1589 +/- 115 nmol g(-1) dw). The concentrations of organic acids in peat pore water showed a similar trend. Elevated ozone did not affect the shoot length or the structure of the sedge E. vaginatum leaves but it slightly increased the total number of sedge leaves towards the end of the experiment. Our results indicate that elevated ozone concentration enhances the general growth conditions of microbes in peat by increasing their substrate availability. However, the methane production did not reflect the increase in the concentration of organic acids, probably because hydrogenotrophic methane production dominated in the peat studied. Although, we used isolated peatland microcosms with limited size as study material, we did not find experimental factors that could have hampered the basic conclusions on the effects of ozone.
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6.
  • Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani, et al. (författare)
  • Degradation potentials of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from thawed permafrost peat
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global warming can substantially affect the export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat-permafrost to aquatic systems. The direct degradability of such peat-derived DOC, however, is poorly constrained because previous permafrost thaw studies have mainly addressed mineral soil catchments or DOC pools that have already been processed in surface waters. We incubated peat cores from a palsa mire to compare an active layer and an experimentally thawed permafrost layer with regard to DOC composition and degradation potentials of pore water DOC. Our results show that DOC from the thawed permafrost layer had high initial degradation potentials compared with DOC from the active layer. In fact, the DOC that showed the highest bio- and photo-degradability, respectively, originated in the thawed permafrost layer. Our study sheds new light on the DOC composition of peat-permafrost directly upon thaw and suggests that past estimates of carbon-dioxide emissions from thawed peat permafrost may be biased as they have overlooked the initial mineralization potential of the exported DOC.
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7.
  • Voigt, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Ecosystem carbon response of an Arctic peatland to simulated permafrost thaw
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 25:5, s. 1746-1764
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Permafrost peatlands are biogeochemical hot spots in the Arctic as they store vast amounts of carbon. Permafrost thaw could release part of these long-term immobile carbon stocks as the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) to the atmosphere, but how much, at which time-span and as which gaseous carbon species is still highly uncertain. Here we assess the effect of permafrost thaw on GHG dynamics under different moisture and vegetation scenarios in a permafrost peatland. A novel experimental approach using intact plant–soil systems (mesocosms) allowed us to simulate permafrost thaw under near-natural conditions. We monitored GHG flux dynamics via high-resolution flow-through gas measurements, combined with detailed monitoring of soil GHG concentration dynamics, yielding insights into GHG production and consumption potential of individual soil layers. Thawing the upper 10–15 cm of permafrost under dry conditions increased CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere (without vegetation: 0.74 ± 0.49 vs. 0.84 ± 0.60 g CO 2 –C m −2 day −1 ; with vegetation: 1.20 ± 0.50 vs. 1.32 ± 0.60 g CO 2 –C m −2 day −1 , mean ± SD, pre- and post-thaw, respectively). Radiocarbon dating ( 14 C) of respired CO 2 , supported by an independent curve-fitting approach, showed a clear contribution (9%–27%) of old carbon to this enhanced post-thaw CO 2 flux. Elevated concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 , and dissolved organic carbon at depth indicated not just pulse emissions during the thawing process, but sustained decomposition and GHG production from thawed permafrost. Oxidation of CH 4 in the peat column, however, prevented CH 4 release to the atmosphere. Importantly, we show here that, under dry conditions, peatlands strengthen the permafrost–carbon feedback by adding to the atmospheric CO 2 burden post-thaw. However, as long as the water table remains low, our results reveal a strong CH 4 sink capacity in these types of Arctic ecosystems pre- and post-thaw, with the potential to compensate part of the permafrost CO 2 losses over longer timescales.
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8.
  • Voigt, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Increased nitrous oxide emissions from Arctic peatlands after permafrost thaw
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 114:24, s. 6238-6243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing, exposing large carbon and nitrogen stocks for decomposition. Gaseous carbon release from Arctic soils due to permafrost thawing is known to be substantial, but growing evidence suggests that Arctic soils may also be relevant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we show that N2O emissions from subarctic peatlands increase as the permafrost thaws. In our study, the highest postthaw emissions occurred from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in permafrost peatlands, where permafrost thaw caused a fivefold increase in emissions (0.56 +/- 0.11 vs. 2.81 +/- 0.6 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1)). These emission rates match those from tropical forest soils, the world's largest natural terrestrial N2O source. The presence of vegetation, known to limit N2O emissions in tundra, did decrease (by similar to 90%) but did not prevent thaw-induced N2O release, whereas waterlogged conditions suppressed the emissions. We show that regions with high probability for N2O emissions cover one-fourth of the Arctic. Our results imply that the Arctic N2O budget will depend strongly on moisture changes, and that a gradual deepening of the active layer will create a strong noncarbon climate change feedback.
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9.
  • Voigt, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Increased nitrous oxide emissions from Arctic peatlands after permafrost thaw
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Acad Sciences. - 0027-8424. ; 114:24, s. 6238-6243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing, exposing large carbon and nitrogen stocks for decomposition. Gaseous carbon release from Arctic soils due to permafrost thawing is known to be substantial, but growing evidence suggests that Arctic soils may also be relevant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we show that N2O emissions from subarctic peatlands increase as the permafrost thaws. In our study, the highest postthaw emissions occurred from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in permafrost peatlands, where permafrost thaw caused a fivefold increase in emissions (0.56 ± 0.11 vs. 2.81 ± 0.6 mg N2O m-2 d-1). These emission rates match those from tropical forest soils, the world's largest natural terrestrial N2O source. The presence of vegetation, known to limit N2O emissions in tundra, did decrease (by ∼90%) but did not prevent thaw-induced N2O release, whereas waterlogged conditions suppressed the emissions. We show that regions with high probability for N2O emissions cover one-fourth of the Arctic. Our results imply that the Arctic N2O budget will depend strongly on moisture changes, and that a gradual deepening of the active layer will create a strong noncarbon climate change feedback.
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