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Sökning: WFRF:(Martinez Majander N)

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1.
  • Ilinca, A., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-Exome Sequencing in 22 Young Ischemic Stroke Patients With Familial Clustering of Stroke
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:4, s. 1056-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Backgrounds and Purpose-Although new methods for genetic analyses are rapidly evolving, there are currently knowledge gaps in how to detect Mendelian forms of stroke. Methods-We performed whole-exome sequencing in 22 probands, under 56 years at their first ischemic stroke episode, from multi-incident stroke families. With the use of a comprehensive stroke-gene panel, we searched for variants in stroke-related genes. The probands' clinical stroke subtype was related to clinical characteristics previously associated with pathogenic variants in these genes. Relatives were genotyped in 7 families to evaluate stroke-gene variants of unknown significance. In 2 larger families with embolic stroke of unknown source, whole-exome sequencing was performed in additional members to examine the possibility of identifying new stroke genes. Results-Six of 22 probands carried pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in genes reported to be associated with their stroke subtype. A known pathogenic variant in NOTCH3 and a possibly pathogenic variant in ACAD9 gene were identified. A novel JAK2:c.3188G>A (p.Arg1063His) mutation was seen in a proband with embolic stroke of undetermined source and prothrombotic status. However, penetrance in the family was incomplete. COL4A2:c.3368A>G (p.Glu1123Gly) was detected in 2 probands but did not cosegregate with the disease in their families. Whole-exome sequencing in multiple members of 2 pedigrees with embolic stroke of undetermined source revealed possibly pathogenic variants in genes not previously associated with stroke, GPR142:c.148C>G (p.Leu50Val), and PTPRN2:c.2416A>G (p.Ile806Val); LRRC1 c.808A>G (p.Ile270Val), SLC7A10c.1294dupG (p.Val432fs), IKBKB: c.1070C>T (p.Ala357Val), and OXGR1 c.392G>A (p.Arg131His), respectively. Conclusions-Screening with whole-exome sequencing using a comprehensive stroke-gene panel may identify rare monogenic forms of stroke, but careful evaluation of clinical characteristics and potential pathogenicity of novel variants remain important. In our study, the majority of individuals with familial aggregation of stroke lacked any identified genetic causes.
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2.
  • Martinez-Majander, N., et al. (författare)
  • Association between Migraine and Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134. ; 89:2, s. 242-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess the association between migraine and cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) in young adults, with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods We prospectively enrolled 347 consecutive patients aged 18 to 49 years with a recent CIS and 347 age- and sex-matched (+/- 5 years) stroke-free controls. Any migraine and migraine with (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) were identified by a screener, which we validated against a headache neurologist. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes, waist-to-hip ratio, physical inactivity, current smoking, heavy drinking, and oral estrogen use to assess independent association between migraine and CIS. The effect of PFO on the association between migraine and CIS was analyzed with logistic regression in a subgroup investigated with transcranial Doppler bubble screen. Results The screener performance was excellent (Cohen kappa > 0.75) in patients and controls. Compared with nonmigraineurs, any migraine (odds ratio [OR] = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63-3.76) and MA (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.19-5.61) were associated with CIS, whereas MO was not. The association emerged in both women (OR = 2.97 for any migraine, 95% CI = 1.61-5.47; OR = 4.32 for MA, 95% CI = 2.16-8.65) and men (OR = 2.47 for any migraine, 95% CI = 1.32-4.61; OR = 3.61 for MA, 95% CI = 1.75-7.45). Specifically for MA, the association with CIS remained significant irrespective of PFO. MA prevalence increased with increasing magnitude of the right-to-left shunt in patients with PFO. Interpretation MA has a strong association with CIS in young patients, independent of vascular risk factors and presence of PFO. ANN NEUROL 2020
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3.
  • Gensicke, H, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic significance of proteinuria in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European journal of neurology. - 1468-1331. ; 24:2, s. 262-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are indicators of renal function. Whether proteinuria better predicts outcome than eGFR in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) remains to be determined.In this explorative multicenter IVT register based study, the presence of urine dipstick proteinuria (yes/no), reduced eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and the coexistence of both with regard to (i) poor 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6), (ii) death within 3 months and (iii) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ECASS-II criteria) were compared. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Amongst 3398 patients, 881 (26.1%) had proteinuria and 623 (18.3%) reduced eGFR. Proteinuria [ORadjusted 1.65 (1.37-2.00) and ORadjusted 1.52 (1.24-1.88)] and reduced eGFR [ORadjusted 1.26 (1.01-1.57) and ORadjusted 1.34 (1.06-1.69)] were independently associated with poor functional outcome and death, respectively. After adding both renal markers to the models, proteinuria [ORadjusted+eGFR 1.59 (1.31-1.93)] still predicted poor outcome whilst reduced eGFR [ORadjusted+proteinuria 1.20 (0.96-1.50)] did not. Proteinuria was associated with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage [ORadjusted 1.54 (1.09-2.17)] but not reduced eGFR [ORadjusted 0.96 (0.63-1.62)]. In 234 (6.9%) patients, proteinuria and reduced eGFR were coexistent. Such patients were at the highest risk of poor outcome [ORadjusted 2.16 (1.54-3.03)] and death [ORadjusted 2.55 (1.69-3.84)].Proteinuria and reduced eGFR were each independently associated with poor outcome and death but the statistically strongest association appeared for proteinuria. Patients with coexistent proteinuria and reduced eGFR were at the highest risk of poor outcome and death.
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4.
  • Kivioja, R., et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for early-onset ischemic stroke: A case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980. ; 7:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Recent studies have shown an increasing prevalence of vascular risk factors in young adults with ischemic stroke (IS). However, the strength of the association between all vascular risk factors and early-onset IS has not been fully established. Methods and Results-We compared 961 patients with a first-ever IS at 25 to 49 years to 1403 frequency-matched stroke-free controls from a population-based cohort study (FINRISK). Assessed risk factors included an active malignancy, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, current smoking status, a family history of stroke, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We performed subgroup analyses based on age, sex, and IS etiology. In a fully adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis, significant risk factors for IS consisted of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 10.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33–46.77], cardiovascular disease (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 3.09–20.78), type 1 diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 3.15–14.33), type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.35–3.95), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37–2.40), current smoking status (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.50–2.17), hypertension (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17–1.75), and a family history of stroke (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04–1.82). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol exhibited an inverse association with IS. In the subgroup analyses, the most consistent associations appeared for current smoking status and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions-Our study establishes the associations between 11 vascular risk factors and early-onset IS, among which atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, and both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in particular showed strong associations. © 2018 The Authors.
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5.
  • Martinez-Majander, N., et al. (författare)
  • Embolic strokes of undetermined source in young adults: baseline characteristics and long-term outcome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101. ; 25:3, s. 535-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purposeEmbolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) are a recent entity, not yet thoroughly investigated in young stroke patients. The clinical characteristics and long-term risks of vascular events and all-cause mortality between young-onset ESUS and other aetiological subgroups were compared. MethodsPatients with ESUS were identified amongst the 1008 patients aged 15-49 years with first-ever ischaemic stroke in Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and primary end-points were defined as recurrent stroke, composite vascular events and all-cause mortality. Cumulative 15-year risks for each end-point were analysed with life tables and adjusted risks were based on Cox proportional hazard analyses. ResultsOf the 971 eligible patients, 203 (20.9%) were classified as ESUS. They were younger (median age 40 years, interquartile range 32-46 vs. 45 years, 39-47), more often female (43.3% vs. 35.7%) and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors than other modified TOAST groups. With a median follow-up time of 10.1 years, ESUS patients had the second lowest cumulative risk of recurrent stroke and composite vascular events and lowest mortality compared to other TOAST groups. Large-artery atherosclerosis and small vessel disease carried significantly higher risk for recurrent stroke than did ESUS, whilst no difference appeared between cardioembolism from high-risk sources and ESUS. ConclusionsIn our cohort, ESUS patients were younger and had milder cardiovascular risk factor burden and generally better long-term outcome compared to other causes of young-onset stroke. The comparable risk of recurrent stroke between ESUS and high-risk sources of cardioembolism might suggest similarities in their pathophysiology.
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6.
  • Martinez-Majander, N., et al. (författare)
  • Endothelial Dysfunction is Associated With Early-Onset Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke in Men and With Increasing Age
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980. ; 10:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The aim of this study was to assess the association between endothelial function and early-onset cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS), with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and age groups. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 136 consecutive patients aged 18 to 49 years (median age, 41 years; 44% women) with a recent CIS and 136 age- and sex-matched (+/- 5 years) stroke-free controls. Endothelial function was measured with an EndoPAT 2000 device and analyzed as tertiles of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index with lower values reflecting dysfunction. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, current smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, and diet score to assess the independent association between endothelial function and CIS. Patients in the lowest tertile of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index were more often men and they more frequently had a history of dyslipidemia; they were also more often obese, had a lower diet score, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the entire cohort, we found no association in patients with endothelial function and CIS compared with stroke-free controls. In sex- and age-specific analyses, endothelial dysfunction was associated with CIS in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.50 for lowest versus highest natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index tertile; 95% CI, 1.22-10.07) and in patients >= 41 years (OR, 5.78; 95% CI, 1.52-21.95). These associations remained significant when dyslipidemia was replaced with the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an independent player in early-onset CIS in men and patients approaching middle age.
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7.
  • Martinez-Majander, N., et al. (författare)
  • Rivaroxaban versus aspirin for secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in patients with cancer: a subgroup analysis of the NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - 1351-5101. ; 27:5, s. 841-848
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose Cancer is a frequent finding in ischaemic stroke patients. The frequency of cancer amongst participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial and the distribution of outcome events during treatment with aspirin and rivaroxaban were investigated. Methods Trial participation required a recent embolic stroke of undetermined source. Patients' history of cancer was recorded at the time of study entry. During a mean follow-up of 11 months, the effects of aspirin and rivaroxaban treatment on recurrent ischaemic stroke, major bleeding and all-cause mortality were compared between patients with cancer and patients without cancer. Results Amongst 7213 randomized patients, 543 (7.5%) had cancer. Of all patients, 3609 were randomized to rivaroxaban [254 (7.0%) with cancer] and 3604 patients to aspirin [289 (8.0%) with cancer]. The annual rate of recurrent ischaemic stroke was 4.5% in non-cancer patients in the rivaroxaban arm and 4.6% in the aspirin arm [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.24]. In cancer patients, the rate of recurrent ischaemic stroke was 7.7% in the rivaroxaban arm and 5.4% in the aspirin arm (HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.71-2.87). Amongst cancer patients, the annual rate of major bleeds was non-significantly higher for rivaroxaban than aspirin (2.9% vs. 1.1%; HR 2.57, 95% CI 0.67-9.96; P for interaction 0.95). All-cause mortality was similar in both groups. Conclusions Our exploratory analyses show that patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source and a history of cancer had similar rates of recurrent ischaemic strokes and all-cause mortality during aspirin and rivaroxaban treatments and that aspirin appeared safer than rivaroxaban in cancer patients regarding major bleeds. (NCT02313909).
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8.
  • Pirinen, J., et al. (författare)
  • ECG markers associated with ischemic stroke at young age - a case-control study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Medicine. - 0785-3890. ; 49:7, s. 562-568
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Certain electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are associated with ischemic stroke (IS), especially cardioembolic subtype. Besides atrial fibrillation, markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or atrial pathology also reflect elevated risk. We studied the association of ECG markers with IS in young adults. Methods: We performed a case-control study including 567 consecutive IS patients aged 15-49 years (inclusion period: 1994-2007) and one or two age-and sex-matched control subjects enrolled during 1978-1980 (n = 1033), and investigated also the stroke aetiologic subgroups. We studied ECGs of all participants for markers of atrial abnormality, i.e. P-terminal force (PTF) on lead V1, interatrial blocks (IAB; P-wave duration >= 110ms), and LVH. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used. Results: IAB (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-2.13) and PTF combined with LVH (HR: 6.83, 95% CI: 1.65-28.31), were independently associated with IS. LVH, abnormal P-wave (HR: 6.87, 95% CI: 1.97-135.29), PTF, IAB, and combinations of these P-wave abnormalities with LVH - were associated with cardioembolic subtype. Abnormal P-wave and IAB were associated with cryptogenic stroke subtype. In unadjusted analysis, LVH was associated with small-vessel disease subtype. Conclusion: P-wave abnormalities on ECG were associated with cardioembolic but also with a cryptogenic subtype of IS.
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9.
  • Polymeris, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Intravenous thrombolysis for suspected ischemic stroke with seizure at onset
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134. ; 86:5, s. 770-779
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Seizure at onset (SaO) has been considered a relative contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke, although this appraisal is not evidence based. Here, we investigated the prognostic significance of SaO in patients treated with IVT for suspected ischemic stroke. Methods In this multicenter, IVT-registry-based study we assessed the association between SaO and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition), 3-month mortality, and 3-month functional outcome on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression, coarsened exact matching, and inverse probability weighted analyses. Results Among 10,074 IVT-treated patients, 146 (1.5%) had SaO. SaO patients had significantly higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and glucose on admission, and more often female sex, prior stroke, and prior functional dependence than non-SaO patients. In unadjusted analysis, they had generally less favorable outcomes. After controlling for confounders in adjusted, matched, and weighted analyses, all associations between SaO and any of the outcomes disappeared, including sICH (odds ratio [OR](unadjusted) = 1.53 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-3.14], ORadjusted = 0.52 [95% CI = 0.13-2.16], ORmatched = 0.68 [95% CI = 0.15-3.03], ORweighted = 0.95 [95% CI = 0.39-2.32]), mortality (ORunadjusted = 1.49 [95% CI = 1.00-2.24], ORadjusted = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.5-1.92], ORmatched = 1.13 [95% CI = 0.55-2.33], ORweighted = 1.17 [95% CI = 0.73-1.88]), and functional outcome (mRS >= 3/ordinal mRS: ORunadjusted = 1.33 [95% CI = 0.96-1.84]/1.35 [95% CI = 1.01-1.81], ORadjusted = 0.78 [95% CI = 0.45-1.32]/0.78 [95% CI = 0.52-1.16], ORmatched = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.43-1.32]/0.45 [95% CI = 0.10-2.06], ORweighted = 0.87 [95% CI = 0.57-1.34]/1.00 [95% CI = 0.66-1.52]). These results were consistent regardless of whether patients had an eventual diagnosis of ischemic stroke (89/146) or stroke mimic (57/146 SaO patients). Interpretation SaO was not an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Withholding IVT from patients with assumed ischemic stroke presenting with SaO seems unjustified. ANN NEUROL 2019
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10.
  • van Dongen, M. M. E., et al. (författare)
  • Use of antihypertensive medication after ischemic stroke in young adults and its association with long-term outcome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Medicine. - 0785-3890. ; 51:1, s. 68-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Knowledge on the use of secondary preventive medication in young adults is limited. Methods: We included 936 first-ever ischemic stroke 30-day survivors aged 15-49, enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, 1994-2007. Follow-up data until 2012 came from Finnish Care Register, Statistics Finland, and Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Usage thresholds were defined as non-users, low (prescription coverage <30%), intermediate (30-80%) and high users (>80%). Adjusted Cox regression allowed assessing the association of usage with all-cause mortality and recurrent vascular events. Results: Of our patients, 40.5% were non-users, 7.8% had low usage, 11.8% intermediate usage and 40.0% high usage. Median follow-up was 8.3 years. Compared to non-users, risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA was lower for patients with low-intermediate (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.65; HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18-0.53) and high usage (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.42; HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.46), after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Use of antihypertensives was suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensives were initially prescribed. Users were at lower risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA compared to non-users.Key Messages The use of antihypertensive medication is suboptimal in one-third of patients in whom antihypertensive medication was initially prescribed after ischemic stroke at young age. The risk of mortality and recurrent stroke or TIA is lower for users of antihypertensive medication after ischemic stroke at young age compared to non-users, after adjustment for relevant confounders including pre-existing hypertension and prior use of antihypertensive medication. Specific guidelines on antihypertensive medication use after ischemic stroke at young age are lacking. However, our results may motivate doctors and patients in gaining better usage of antihypertensive medication, since better usage was associated with more favorable outcome in this study.
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