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1.
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2.
  • Palli, Domenico, et al. (författare)
  • CagA+ Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC-EURGAST study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 120:4, s. 859-867
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atrophic gastritis, dietary and lifestyle factors have been associated with gastric cancer (GC). These factors have been evaluated in a large case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition carried out in 9 countries, including the Mediterranean area. Participants, enrolled in 1992-1998, provided life-style and dietary information and a blood sample (360,000; mean follow-up: 6.1 years). For 233 GC cases diagnosed after enrolment and their 910 controls individually-matched by center, gender, age and blood donation date H. pylori antibodies (antilysate and antiCagA) and plasma Pepsinogen A (PGA) were measured by ELISA methods. Severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) was defined as PGA circulating levels < 22 mu g/l. Overall, in a conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for education, smoke, weight and consumption of total vegetables, fruit, red and preserved meat, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with GC risk. Subjects showing only antibodies anti-H. pylori lysate, however, were not at increased risk, while those with antiCagA antibodies had a 3.4-fold increased risk. Overall, the odds ratio associated with SCAG was 3.3 (95% CI 2.2-5.2). According to site, the risk of noncardia GC associated with CagA seropositivity showed a further increase (OR 6.5; 95% CI 3.3-12.6); on the other hand, a ten-fold increased risk of cardia GC was associated with SCAG (OR 11.0; 95% C1 3.0-40.9). These results support the causal relationship between H. pylori CagA+ strains infection, and GC in these European populations even after taking into account dietary habits. This association was limited to distal GC, while serologically defined SCAG was strongly associated with cardia GC, thus suggesting a divergent risk pattern for these 2 sites. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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4.
  • Golosio, B., et al. (författare)
  • The FIRST experiment for nuclear fragmentation measurements at GSI
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2011 IEEE. ; s. 2277-2280
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of physics concerning both basic research and applications. FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) is an experiment aimed at the measurement of double differential cross sections (DDCS), with respect to kinetic energy and scattering polar angle, of nuclear fragmentation processes relevant for hadron therapy and for space radiation protection applications, in the energy range between 100 and 1000 MeV/u. The experiment was mounted at the GSI laboratories of Darmstadt, in Germany. A first data taking was performed in August 2011, using 400 MeV/u 12C on carbon and gold targets. In this work we present a description of the experimental apparatus and some figures from the data acquisition and from the preliminary work on data analysis</p><p></p>
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5.
  • Kreimer, Aimée R, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Risk of Subsequent Head and Neck Cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 31:21, s. 2708-2708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSEHuman papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. METHODSWe identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. CONCLUSIONHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers.
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6.
  • Rietveld, Cornelius A., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 340:6139, s. 1467-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R-2 approximate to 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximate to 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.</p>
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8.
  • Zamora-Ros, R., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intakes and food sources of phytoestrogens in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24-hour dietary recall cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5640. ; 66:8, s. 932-941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 037 individuals from 10 European countries, aged 35-74 years using a standardized computerized interview programe (EPIC-Soft). An ad hoc food composition database on phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, enterolignans and equol) was compiled using data from available databases, in order to obtain and describe phytoestrogen intakes and their food sources across 27 redefined EPIC centres. RESULTS: Mean total phytoestrogen intake was the highest in the UK health-conscious group (24.9 mg/day in men and 21.1 mg/day in women) whereas lowest in Greece (1.3 mg/day) in men and Spain-Granada (1.0 mg/day) in women. Northern European countries had higher intakes than southern countries. The main phytoestrogen contributors were isoflavones in both UK centres and lignans in the other EPIC cohorts. Age, body mass index, educational level, smoking status and physical activity were related to increased intakes of lignans, enterolignans and equol, but not to total phytoestrogen, isoflavone or coumestan intakes. In the UK cohorts, the major food sources of phytoestrogens were soy products. In the other EPIC cohorts the dietary sources were more distributed, among fruits, vegetables, soy products, cereal products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high variability in the dietary intake of total and phytoestrogen subclasses and their food sources across European regions.
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9.
  • Dam, Veerle, et al. (författare)
  • Association of menopausal characteristics and risk of coronary heart disease : : A pan-European case-cohort analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771. ; 48:4, s. 1275-1285
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.
10.
  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 55:6, s. 2093-2104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults. Methods: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders. Results: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (−22 g/year; 95 % CI −33 to −10) and women (−18 g/year; 95 % CI −26 to −11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant. Conclusions: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.
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