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Sökning: WFRF:(Masip J)

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1.
  • Denault, V., et al. (författare)
  • L’analyse de la communication non verbale: Les dangers de la pseudoscience en contextes de sécurité et de justice
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique. - 1424-4683. ; 73:1, s. 15-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For security and justice professionals, the thousands of peer-reviewed articles on nonverbal communication represent important sources of knowledge. However, despite the scope of the scientific work carried out on this subject, professionals can turn to programs, methods and approaches that fail to reflect the state of science. The objective of this article is to examine (i) concepts of nonverbal communication conveyed by these programs, methods and approaches, but also (ii) the consequences of their use. To achieve this objective, we describe the scope of scientific research on nonverbal communication. A program (SPOT; “Screening of Passengers by Observation Techniques”), a method (the BAI; “Behavior Analysis Interview”) and an approach (synergology) that each run counter to the state of science are examined. Finally, we outline five hypotheses to explain why some organizations in the fields of security and justice are turning to pseudoscience and pseudoscientific techniques. © 2020, Polymedia Meichtry SA. All rights reserved.
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  • Poelzl, Gerhard, et al. (författare)
  • Repetitive use of levosimendan in advanced heart failure : need for stronger evidence in a field in dire need of a useful therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 243, s. 389-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients in the latest stages of heart failure are severely compromised, with poor quality of life and frequent hospitalizations. Heart transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation are viable options only for a minority, and intermittent or continuous infusions of positive inotropes may be needed as a bridge therapy or as a symptomatic approach. In these settings, levosimendan has potential advantages over conventional inotropes (catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors), such as sustained effects after initial infusion, synergy with beta-blockers, and no increase in oxygen consumption. Levosimendan has been suggested as a treatment that reduces re-hospitalization and improves quality of life. However, previous clinical studies of intermittent infusions of levosimendan were not powered to show statistical significance on key outcome parameters. A panel of 45 expert clinicians from 12 European countries met in Rome on November 24-25, 2016 to review the literature and envision an appropriately designed clinical trial addressing these needs. In the earlier FIGHT trial (daily subcutaneous injection of liraglutide in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction) a composite Global Rank Score was used as primary end-point where death, re-hospitalization, and change in N-terminalprohormone-brain natriuretic peptide level were considered in a hierarchical order. In the present study, we tested the same end-point post hoc in the PERSIST and LEVOREP trials on oral and repeated i.v. levosimendan, respectively, and demonstrated superiority of levosimendan treatment vs placebo. The use of the same composite end-point in a properly powered study on repetitive levosimendan in advanced heart failure is strongly advocated.
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4.
  • Guitart-Masip, Marc, et al. (författare)
  • Differential, but not opponent, effects of L-DOPA and citalopram on action learning with reward and punishment
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychopharmacology. - 0033-3158 .- 1432-2072. ; 231:5, s. 955-966
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Decision-making involves two fundamental axes of control namely valence, spanning reward and punishment, and action, spanning invigoration and inhibition. We recently exploited a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action to show that these axes are inextricably coupled during learning. This results in a disadvantage in learning to go to avoid punishment and in learning to no-go to obtain a reward. The neuromodulators dopamine and serotonin are likely to play a role in these asymmetries: Dopamine signals anticipation of future rewards and is also involved in an invigoration of motor responses leading to reward, but it also arbitrates between different forms of control. Conversely, serotonin is implicated in motor inhibition and punishment processing. To investigate the role of dopamine and serotonin in the interaction between action and valence during learning. We combined computational modeling with pharmacological manipulation in 90 healthy human volunteers, using levodopa and citalopram to affect dopamine and serotonin, respectively. We found that, after administration of levodopa, action learning was less affected by outcome valence when compared with the placebo and citalopram groups. This highlights in this context a predominant effect of levodopa in controlling the balance between different forms of control. Citalopram had distinct effects, increasing participants' tendency to perform active responses independent of outcome valence, consistent with a role in decreasing motor inhibition. Our findings highlight the rich complexities of the roles played by dopamine and serotonin during instrumental learning.
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5.
  • Maack, C, et al. (författare)
  • Treatments targeting inotropy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. - 1522-9645. ; 40:44, s. 3626-3640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Bach, Dominik R., et al. (författare)
  • Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - 0960-9822 .- 1879-0445. ; 24:5, s. 541-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2-6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus.
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7.
  • de Boer, Lieke, et al. (författare)
  • Dorsal striatal dopamine D1 receptor availability predicts an instrumental bias in action learning
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 116:1, s. 261-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Learning to act to obtain reward and inhibit to avoid punishment is easier compared with learning the opposite contingencies. This coupling of action and valence is often thought of as a Pavlovian bias, although recent research has shown it may also emerge through instrumental mechanisms. We measured this learning bias with a rewarded go/no-go task in 60 adults of different ages. Using computational modeling, we characterized the bias as being instrumental. To assess the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in the expression of this bias, we quantified DA D1 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand [C-11]SCH23390. Using principal-component analysis on the binding potentials in a number of cortical and striatal regions of interest, we demonstrated that cortical, dorsal striatal, and ventral striatal areas provide independent sources of variance in DA D1 receptor availability. Interindividual variation in the dorsal striatel component was related to the strength of the instrumental bias during learning. These data suggest at least three anatomical sources of variance in DA D1 receptor availability separable using PET in humans, and we provide evidence that human dorsal striatal DA D1 receptors are involved in the modulation of instrumental learning biases.
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8.
  • Farmakis, D., et al. (författare)
  • Levosimendan beyond inotropy and acute heart failure: Evidence of pleiotropic effects on the heart and other organs: An expert panel position paper
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273. ; 222, s. 303-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levosimendan is a positive inotrope with vasodilating properties (inodilator) indicated for decompensated heart failure (HF) patients with low cardiac output. Accumulated evidence supports several pleiotropic effects of levosimendan beyond inotropy, the heart and decompensated HF. Those effects are not readily explained by cardiac function enhancement and seem to be related to additional properties of the drug such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic ones. Mechanistic and proof-of-concept studies are still required to clarify the underlying mechanisms involved, while properly designed clinical trials are warranted to translate preclinical or early-phase clinical data into more robust clinical evidence. The present position paper, derived by a panel of 35 experts in the field of cardiology, cardiac anesthesiology, intensive care medicine, cardiac physiology, and cardiovascular pharmacology from 22 European countries, compiles the existing evidence on the pleiotropic effects of levosimendan, identifies potential novel areas of clinical application and defines the corresponding gaps in evidence and the required research efforts to address those gaps. © 2016 The Authors
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 33
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