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  • Patel, Yash, et al. (författare)
  • Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - 2168-6238.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood.To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia.Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244.Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls.A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders.In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
  • Aspvall, K., et al. (författare)
  • Stepped Care Internet-Delivered vs Face-to-Face Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder A Trial Protocol for a Randomized Noninferiority Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Jama Network Open. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2574-3805. ; 2:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy is an effective treatment for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and has the potential to markedly increase access to treatment for patients while being cost-effective for health care organizations. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy implemented within a stepped care model is noninferior to, and cost-effective compared with, the gold standard of face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter, single-blind, randomized clinical noninferiority trial implemented at 2 specialist pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder clinics in Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants are 152 children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years with obsessive compulsive disorder, recruited through the 2 clinics and online self-referral. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to the stepped care intervention or face-to-face therapy. Blind evaluations will be conducted after treatment and at 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. At the 6-month follow-up (primary end point), noninferiority will be tested and resource use will be compared between the 2 treatment groups. Data will be analyzed according to intention-to-treat principles. INTERVENTION Patients randomized to stepped care will first receive internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for 16 weeks; patients who are classified as nonresponders 3 months after treatment completion will receive additional face-to-face therapy. The control group will receive 16 weeks of face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy immediately following randomization and nonresponders at the 3-month follow-up will, as in the stepped care group, receive additional face-to-face therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Noninferiority is defined as a 4-point difference on the primary outcome measure (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale). DISCUSSION Recruitment started October 6, 2017, and was completed May 24, 2019. Results from the primary end point will be available by May 2020. The naturalistic follow-ups (1, 2, and 5 years after the end of treatment) will continue to 2025. There are no interim analyses planned or stopping rules for the trial.
  • Aspvall, K., et al. (författare)
  • Implementation of internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Lessons from clinics in Sweden, United Kingdom and Australia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Internet Interventions. - 2214-7829. ; 20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be successfully treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). However, as few patients have access to CBT, there is a strong push to develop and evaluate scalable and cost-effective internet-delivered interventions. BIP OCD is a therapist-guided online CBT intervention for pediatric OCD that has shown promise in trials conducted at a single site in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, we evaluated if BIP OCD is an acceptable, feasible, and effective treatment in other countries and clinical contexts. Thirty-one patients were recruited at three different sites; a specialist OCD clinic in Gothenburg (Sweden), a specialist OCD clinic in London (United Kingdom), and a university-based clinic in Brisbane (Australia). Acceptability and feasibility measures included treatment adherence and feedback from therapists. Clinician assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. The average module completion for the participants was 8.1/12 (SD = 3.2) and the majority of patients completed the BIP OCD treatment (100% in Gothenburg, and 55.6% in both London and Brisbane). Pooling data from the three sites, the within-group effect sizes from baseline to post-treatment on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were in the expected range (bootstrapped Cohen's d = 1.78; 95% CI 1.18–2.39), with an additional symptom reduction to the 3-month follow-up (bootstrapped Cohen's d = 0.27; 95% CI 0.02–0.51). Participating therapists identified both advantages and difficulties supporting patients in this digital format. The results of this study suggest that the treatment effects obtained in the original BIP OCD trials can be generalized to other clinical contexts nationally and internationally. Lessons learned provide important information for successful implementation of BIP OCD in regular healthcare contexts. © 2020 The Authors
  • Enander, J., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and heritability of body dysmorphic symptoms in adolescents and young adults: a population-based nationwide twin study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 48:16, s. 2740-2747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) usually begins during adolescence but little is known about the prevalence, etiology, and patterns of comorbidity in this age group. We investigated the prevalence of BDD symptoms in adolescents and young adults. We also report on the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on BDD symptoms, and the risk for co-existing psychopathology. Methods. Prevalence of BDD symptoms was determined by a validated cut-off on the Dysmorphic Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) in three population-based twin cohorts at ages 15 (n = 6968), 18 (n = 3738), and 20-28 (n = 4671). Heritability analysis was performed using univariate model-fitting for the DCQ. The risk for co-existing psychopathology was expressed as odds ratios (OR). Results. The prevalence of clinically significant BDD symptoms was estimated to be between 1 and 2% in the different cohorts, with a significantly higher prevalence in females (1.3-3.3%) than in males (0.2-0.6%). The heritability of body dysmorphic concerns was estimated to be 49% (95% CI 38-54%) at age 15, 39% (95% CI 30-46) at age 18, and 37% (95% CI 29-42) at ages 20-28, with the remaining variance being due to non-shared environment. ORs for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems ranged from 2.3 to 13.2. Conclusions. Clinically significant BDD symptoms are relatively common in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly in females. The low occurrence of BDD symptoms in adolescent boys may indicate sex differences in age of onset and/or etiological mechanisms. BDD symptoms are moderately heritable in young people and associated with an increased risk for co-existing neuropsychiatric and alcohol-related problems.
  • Ivanov, Volen Z., et al. (författare)
  • Enhancing group cognitive-behavioral therapy for hoarding disorder with between-session Internet-based clinician support : A feasibility study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Psychology. - : WILEY. - 0021-9762 .- 1097-4679. ; 74:7, s. 1092-1105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Hoarding disorder (HD) is difficult to treat. In an effort to increase efficacy and engagement in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), we developed and evaluated a novel intervention comprising group CBT combined with between-session Internet-based clinician support for people with HD.Method Twenty participants with HD received group CBT combined with an Internet-support system enabling therapist-participant communication between group sessions.Results The treatment was associated with a significant reduction on the Saving InventoryRevised (SI-R) and a large effect size (Cohen's d=1.57) was found at posttreatment. Treatment gains were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Group attendance was high and no participants dropped out from treatment prematurely. Between-session motivational support from the therapist was most frequently mentioned as the main strength of the system.Conclusion The results of this study support adding Internet-based clinician support to group CBT for HD to increase treatment adherence and, potentially, improve the overall efficacy of CBT.
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