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Sökning: WFRF:(Mathews C)

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  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3, s. R53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
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  • Ashizawa, T., et al. (författare)
  • Consensus-based care recommendations for adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology-Clinical Practice. - 2163-0402. ; 8:6, s. 507-520
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose of review Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a severe, progressive genetic disease that affects between 1 in 3,000 and 8,000 individuals globally. No evidence-based guideline exists to inform the care of these patients, and most do not have access to multidisciplinary care centers staffed by experienced professionals, creating a clinical care deficit. Recent findings The Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation (MDF) recruited 66 international clinicians experienced in DM1 patient care to develop consensus-based care recommendations. MDF created a 2-step methodology for the project using elements of the Single Text Procedure and the Nominal Group Technique. The process generated a 4-page Quick Reference Guide and a comprehensive, 55-page document that provides clinical care recommendations for 19 discrete body systems and/or care considerations. The resulting recommendations are intended to help standardize and elevate care for this patient population and reduce variability in clinical trial and study environments.
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  • Dent, W. R. F., et al. (författare)
  • GASPS-A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. - 0004-6280 .- 1538-3873. ; 125:927, s. 477-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted similar to 250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 mu m the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 mu m, [CII] at 157 mu m, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 mu m. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 mu m, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II-III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarise some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 mu m was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of similar to 10. Overall [OI]63 mu m detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI] 63 mu m detection of similar to 10(-5) M-circle dot. Normalising to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses >= 10(-5) M-circle dot can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10(-6)-10(-5) M-circle dot, and only a very small number of unusual objects with lower masses can be detected. This is consistent with models with a moderate UV excess and disk flaring. For a given disk mass, [OI] detectability is lower for M stars compared with earlier spectral types. Both the continuum and line emission was, in most systems, spatially and spectrally unresolved and centred on the star, suggesting that emission in most cases was from the disk. Approximately 10 objects showed resolved emission, most likely from outflows. In the GASPS sample, [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations in the 0.3-4 Myr age range were similar to 50%. For each association in the 5-20 Myr age range, similar to 2 stars remain detectable in [OI]63 mu m, and no systems were detected in associations with age >20 Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars in each association, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that similar to 18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass similar to 1 M-Jupiter for 1-4 Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10 Myr, but none are detected beyond 10-20 Myr. The brightest [OI] objects from GASPS were also observed in [OI]145 mu m, [CII]157 mu m and CO J = 18 - 17, with detection rates of 20-40%. Detection of the [CII] line was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises more commonly from a compact remnant envelope.
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  • Mathews, G. S., et al. (författare)
  • GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) I. First results
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Circumstellar discs are ubiquitous around young stars, but rapidly dissipate their gas and dust on timescales of a few Myr. The Herschel Space Observatory allows for the study of the warm disc atmosphere, using far-infrared spectroscopy to measure gas content and excitation conditions, and far-IR photometry to constrain the dust distribution. Aims. We aim to detect and characterize the gas content of circumstellar discs in four targets as part of the Herschel science demonstration phase. Methods. We carried out sensitive medium resolution spectroscopy and high sensitivity photometry at gimel similar to 60-190 mu m using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Results. We detect [OI] 63 mu m emission from the young stars HD 169142, TW Hydrae, and RECX 15, but not HD 181327. No other lines, including [CII] 158 and [OI] 145, are significantly detected. All four stars are detected in photometry at 70 and 160 mu m. Extensive models are presented in associated papers.
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