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Sökning: WFRF:(Mathis Sandra A.)

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1.
  • Arndt, D. S., et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 98:8, s. S1-S280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.
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2.
  • Blunden, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2012
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - : American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 94:8, s. 1-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the first time in serveral years, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation did not dominate regional climate conditions around the globe. A weak La Ni a dissipated to ENSOneutral conditions by spring, and while El Nino appeared to be emerging during summer, this phase never fully developed as sea surface temperatures in the eastern conditions. Nevertheless, other large-scale climate patterns and extreme weather events impacted various regions during the year. A negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation from mid-January to early February contributed to frigid conditions in parts of northern Africa, eastern Europe, and western Asia. A lack of rain during the 2012 wet season led to the worst drought in at least the past three decades for northeastern Brazil. Central North America also experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. The Caribbean observed a very wet dry season and it was the Sahel's wettest rainy season in 50 years. Overall, the 2012 average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces ranked among the 10 warmest years on record. The global land surface temperature alone was also among the 10 warmest on record. In the upper atmosphere, the average stratospheric temperature was record or near-record cold, depending on the dataset. After a 30-year warming trend from 1970 to 1999 for global sea surface temperatures, the period 2000-12 had little further trend. This may be linked to the prevalence of La Ni a-like conditions during the 21st century. Heat content in the upper 700 m of the ocean remained near record high levels in 2012. Net increases from 2011 to 2012 were observed at 700-m to 2000-m depth and even in the abyssal ocean below. Following sharp decreases in to the effects of La Ni a, sea levels rebounded to reach records highs in 2012. The increased hydrological cycle seen in recent years continued, with more evaporation in drier locations and more precipitation in rainy areas. In a pattern that has held since 2004, salty areas of the ocean surfaces and subsurfaces were anomalously salty on average, while fresher areas were anomalously fresh. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2012 was near average, with a total of 84 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010 and 2011, the North Atlantic was the only hurricane basin that experienced above-normal activity. In this basin, Sandy brought devastation to Cuba and parts of the eastern North American seaboard. All other basins experienced either near-or below-normal tropical cyclone activity. Only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity-all in Bopha became the only storm in the historical record to produce winds greater than 130 kt south of 7 N. It was also the costliest storm to affect the Philippines and killed more than 1000 residents. Minimum Arctic sea ice extent in September and Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent in June both reached new record lows. June snow cover extent is now declining at a faster rate (-17.6% per decade) than September sea ice extent (-13.0% per decade). Permafrost temperatures reached record high values in northernmost Alaska. A new melt extent record occurred on 11-12 July on the Greenland ice sheet; 97% of the ice sheet showed some form of melt, four times greater than the average melt for this time of year. The climate in Antarctica was relatively stable overall. The largest maximum sea ice extent since records begain in 1978 was observed in September 2012. In the stratosphere, warm air led to the second smallest ozone hole in the past two decades. Even so, the springtime ozone layer above Antarctica likely will not return to its early 1980s state until about 2060. Following a slight decline associated with the global 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reached a record 9.5 +/- 0.5 Pg C in 2011 and a new record of 9.7 +/- 0.5 Pg C is estimated for 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by 2.1 ppm in 2012, to 392.6 ppm. In spring 2012, 2 concentration exceeded 400 ppm at 7 of the 13 Arctic observation sites. Globally, other greenhouse gases including methane and nitrous oxide also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 32% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Concentrations of most ozone depleting substances continued to fall.
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3.
  • Enquist, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Kinin-Stimulated B1 Receptor Signaling Depends on Receptor Endocytosis Whereas B2 Receptor Signaling Does Not.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurochemical Research. - : Springer. - 1573-6903. ; 39:6, s. 1037-1047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kinins are potent pro-inflammatory peptides that act through two G protein-coupled receptor subtypes, B1 (B1R) and B2 (B2R). Kinin-stimulated B2R signaling is often transient, whereas B1R signaling is sustained. This was confirmed by monitoring agonist-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in A10 smooth muscle cells expressing human wild-type B2R and B1R. We further studied the role of receptor membrane trafficking in receptor-mediated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in model HEK293 cell lines stably expressing the receptors. Treatment of cells with brefeldin A, to inhibit maturation of de novo synthesized receptors, or hypertonic sucrose, to inhibit receptor endocytosis, showed that the basal cell surface receptor turnover was considerably faster for B1R than for B2R. Inhibition of endocytosis, which stabilized B1R on the cell surface, inhibited B1R signaling, whereas B2R signaling was not perturbed. Signaling by a B1R construct in which the entire C-terminal domain was deleted remained sensitive to inhibition of receptor endocytosis, whereas signaling by a B1R construct in which this domain was substituted with the corresponding domain in B2R was not sensitive. B2R and B1R co-expression, which also appeared to stabilize B1R on the cell surface, presumably by receptor hetero-dimerization, also inhibited B1R signaling, whereas B2R signaling was slightly enhanced. Furthermore, the B2R-specific agonist bradykinin (BK) directed both receptors through a common endocytic pathway, whereas the B1R-specific agonist Lys-desArg(9)-BK was unable to do so. These results suggest that B1R-mediated PI hydrolysis depends on a step in receptor endocytosis, whereas B2R-mediated PI hydrolysis does not. We propose that B1R uses at least part of the endocytic machinery to sustain agonist-promoted signaling.
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4.
  • Fathy, Dana B., et al. (författare)
  • A single position in the third transmembrane domains of the human B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors is adjacent to and discriminates between the C- terminal residues of subtype-selective ligands
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 273:20, s. 12210-12218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to identify agonist- and antagonist-binding epitopes in the human B1 and B2 bradykinin (BK) receptors, we exploited the ability of these receptors to discriminate between peptide ligands that differ only by the absence (B1) grid presence (B2) of a C-terminal Arg. This was done by constructing chimeric proteins in which specific domains were exchanged between these receptors as recently described by us (Leeb, T., Mathis, S. A, and Leeb-Lundberg, L. M. F. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 311-317). The constructs were then expressed in HEK293 and A10 cells and assayed by radioligand binding and by agonist-stimulated inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Substitution of the third transmembrane domain (TM-III) of the B1 receptor in the B2 receptor (B2(B1III)) dramatically reduced the affinities of B2-selective peptide ligands including both the agonist BK and the antagonist NPC17731. High affinity binding of both ligands to B2(B1III) was fully regain when one residue, Lys111, in TM-III of this chimera was replaced with the corresponding wild-type (WT) B2 receptor residue, Ser (B2(B1IIIS111)). Replacement of Ser111 with Lys in the WT B2 receptor decreased the affinities of BK and NPC17731 and increased the affinity of the B1-selective des-Arg10 analog of NPC17731, NPC18565. The results show that the C- terminal residue of peptide agonists and antagonists when bound to the B2 receptor is adjacent to Ser111 in the receptor. A Lys at this position, as is the case in the WT B1 receptor, provides a positive charge that repels the C-terminal Arg in B2-selective peptides and attracts the negative charge of the C terminus of B1-selective peptides, which lack the C-terminal Arg. Therefore, the residues at this one single position are crucial in determining the peptide selectivity of B1 and B2 BK receptors.
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5.
  • Fathy, Dana B., et al. (författare)
  • Spontaneous human B2 bradykinin receptor activity determines the action of partial agonists as agonists or inverse agonists. Effect of basal desensitization
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 274:42, s. 29603-29606
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this report, we show that desensitization regulates ligand- independent, spontaneous activity of the human B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor, and the level of spontaneous receptor activity determines the action of the BK antagonists and partial receptor agonists NPC17731 and HOE140 as agonists or inverse agonists. Spontaneous receptor activity was monitored by measuring basal cellular phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis as a function of the density of the receptor in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Minimal spontaneous activity of the wild-type B2 receptor was detected in these cells. Mutating a cluster of serines and threonines within the fourth intracellular domain of the receptor, which is critical for agonist-promoted desensitization, significantly increased the spontaneous receptor activity. BK, the natural B2 receptor ligand and, consequently, a full agonist, stimulated PI hydrolysis at high and low levels of spontaneous receptor activity. On the other hand, the partial agonists NPC17731 and HOE140 were stimulatory, or agonists, at the lower level of receptor activity but inhibitory, or inverse agonists, at the higher level of activity. These results show that receptors are desensitized in response to their spontaneous activity. Furthermore, these results, which refute traditional theories, show that the capacity of a drug to modulate a receptor response is not intrinsic to the drug but is also dependent on the cellular environment in which the drug acts.
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6.
  • Leeb-Lundberg, L. M.Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Antagonists of bradykinin that stabilize a G-protein-uncoupled state of the B2 receptor act as inverse agonists in rat myometrial cells
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 269:42, s. 25970-25973
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor-specific antagonists including HOE140, NPC17731, and NPC567 exhibited negative intrinsic activity, which was observed as a decrease in basal phosphoinositide hydrolysis in primary cultures of rat myometrial cells, and this response was opposite to that elicited by the agonist BK. The order of potency of the antagonists in attenuating basal activity was essentially the same as that in competing both [3H]BK and [3H]NPC17731 for binding to B2 receptors on both intact rat myometrial cells and bovine myometrial membranes. We previously proposed a three-state model for the binding of agonists to G-protein-coupled B2 receptors in bovine myometrial membranes (Leeb-Lundberg, L. M. F. and Mathis, S. A. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 9621-9627). This model was based on the ability of BK to promote the sequential formation of three receptor binding states where formation of the third, equilibrium state was blocked by Gpp(NH)p (guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) identifying it as the G-protein- coupled state of the receptor. Here, we show that, in contrast to BK, these antagonists bound preferentially to a G-protein-uncoupled state of the receptor. These results indicate that B2 receptor antagonists that stabilize a G-protein-uncoupled state of the receptor act as inverse agonists. Furthermore, these results provide strong evidence that endogenous G-protein- coupled receptors exhibit spontaneous activity in their natural environment in the absence of agonist occupancy.
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7.
  • Leeb-Lundberg, L. M Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Focal Adhesion-associated Proteins p125FAK and Paxillin Are Substrates for Bradykinin-stimulated Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 Cells
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 269:39, s. 24328-24334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we examined the involvement of the focal adhesion-associated proteins p125FAK and paxillin as substrates for bradykinin (BK)-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation in Swiss 3T3 cells and the potential role of protein kinase C and Ca2+ in these events. BK (1 UM) stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and paxillin. In addition, BK also increased the phosphotyrosine content of the src transformation-associated protein p130. The responses were rapid and transient and peaked at ∼1 min after BK addition. Furthermore, the responses were dose-dependent with half-maximal effects occurring at 1-10 nM BK. The phosphotyrosine content of p125FAK, paxillin, and p130 was also increased following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1 μM). In contrast, PMA had no effect on the phosphotyrosine content of p125, a Ras-GAP-associated tyrosine phosphoprotein that we recently identified. Long term pretreatment (18 h) of cells with 0.3 μM PMA partially attenuated BK-stimulated phosphorylation of p125FAK but was without effect on phosphorylation of paxillin and Ras-GAP-associated p125. Furthermore, only a small inhibition of BK- and PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p125FAK was observed following pretreatment with 25 μM BAPTA/AM. In all, these results show that multiple mechanisms are involved in BK-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK, paxillin, RasGAP-associated p125, and src transformation-associated p130.
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8.
  • Leeb, Tosso, et al. (författare)
  • The sixth transmembrane domains of the human B1 and B2 bradykinin receptors are structurally compatible and involved in discriminating between subtype-selective agonists
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 272:1, s. 311-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to investigate the molecular basis for the ability of the human B1 and B2 bradykinin (BK) receptor subtypes to discriminate between subtype- selective ligands, we constructed chimeric proteins in which the sixth transmembrane domains (TM-VI) of these receptors were exchanged. The pharmacological profiles of the constructs were analyzed by radioligand binding in particulate preparations of transiently transfected HEK293 cells using the agonist [3H]des-Arg10-kallidin and the antagonist (3H]NPC17731. The ability of these constructs to transmit an intracellular signal was measured in transiently transfected A10 cells, a vascular smooth muscle cell line, by single cell Ca2+ imaging. Substitution of B1 TM-VI into the B2 receptor (B2(B1VI)) dramatically reduced the affinity of the B2-selective agonist BK, whereas the affinity of the B2-selective antagonist NPC17731 was unaltered. High affinity BK binding was fully regained when two residues, Tyr259 and Ala263, near the extracellular surface of TM-VI in B2(B1VI), were replaced with the corresponding residues in the wild-type B2 receptor, which are Phe259 and Thr263. The construct B1(B2VI), produced by substitution of B2 TM-VI into the B1 receptor, did not support high affinity binding of the B1-selective agonist des-Arg10-kallidin. In contrast to BK and des-Arg10-kallidin, the binding of the less subtype-selective agonist kallidin showed little sensitivity to TM-VI exchange. These results show that TM-VI in the human B1 and B2 BK receptor subtypes, although only 36% identical, are structurally compatible. Furthermore, this domain contributes significantly to the ability of these receptors to discriminate between the subtype-selective agonists BK and des-Arg10-kallidin.
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9.
  • Mathis, Sandra A., et al. (författare)
  • B1 and B2 kinin receptors mediate distinct patterns of intracellular Ca2+ signaling in single cultured vascular smooth muscle cells
  • Ingår i: Molecular Pharmacology. - : American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. - 0026-895X. ; 50:1, s. 128-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stimulation of B1 and B2 kinin receptors on cultured rabbit superior mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells with des-Arg9-bradykinin (DBK) and bradykinin (BK), respectively, results in significantly different patterns of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Single-cell fluorescence imaging of Fura- 2-loaded cells revealed that although both DBK and BK initially triggered similar rapid increases in cytosolic free Ca2+, the DBK response was biphasic and sustained, whereas the BK response was transient. The DBK response was maintained for ≤20 min with the second phase characterized by an elevated plateau and/or base-line oscillations. The BK response was limited to an initial transient peak with the exception of a few cells, which after a prolonged latency period, exhibited weak but regular base-line oscillations. The initial BK- and DBK-stimulated rises in cytosolic free Ca2+ were dependent on the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores that seemed to be common for the two agonists. On the other hand, the continuation of the sustained phase of the DBK response required the influx of extracellular Ca2+, as well as continuous receptor occupancy by the agonist. Stimulation of cells with DBK followed by washing and restimulation with the same agonist within ≤2 min resulted in a second B1 receptor response that was not significantly different from the first response. In contrast, the same protocol with BK yielded a dramatically decreased second B2 receptor response. This attenuation did not seem to be due to a lack of Ca2+ in the agonist-sensitive intracellular stores because DBK elicited a full response after BK stimulation. This study shows that in single cultured RSMA smooth muscle cells, agonist stimulation of B1 receptors generates a sustained intracellular Ca2+ signal, whereas stimulation of B2 receptors promotes rapid and homologous desensitization, resulting in a transient Ca2+ signal. These distinct receptor-specific patterns of Ca2+ mobilization imply significantly different roles for B1 and B2 kinin receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells.
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