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Sökning: WFRF:(Mauceli Evan)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Mikkelsen, Tarjei, et al. (författare)
  • Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 437:7055, s. 69-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differences that have accumulated since the human and chimpanzee species diverged from our common ancestor, constituting approximately thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. We use this catalogue to explore the magnitude and regional variation of mutational forces shaping these two genomes, and the strength of positive and negative selection acting on their genes. In particular, we find that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles. We also use the chimpanzee genome as an outgroup to investigate human population genetics and identify signatures of selective sweeps in recent human evolution.</p>
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2.
  • Zody, Michael, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 440:7084, s. 671-675
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Here we present a finished sequence of human chromosome 15, together with a high-quality gene catalogue. As chromosome 15 is one of seven human chromosomes with a high rate of segmental duplication, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the duplication structure of the chromosome. Segmental duplication in chromosome 15 are largely clustered in two regions, on proximal and distal 15q; the proximal region is notable because recombination among the segmental duplications can result in deletions causing Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. Sequence analysis shows that the proximal and distal regions of 15q share extensive ancient similarity. Using a simple approach, we have been able to reconstruct many of the events by which the current duplication structure arose. We find that most of the intrachromosomal duplications seem to share a common ancestry. Finally, we demonstrate that some remaining gaps in the genome sequence are probably due to structural polymorphisms between haplotypes; this may explain a significant fraction of the gaps remaining in the human genome.</p>
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3.
  • Alfoeldi, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 477:7366, s. 587-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments(1). Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds(2-4), but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome sequence of the North American green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. We find that A. carolinensis microchromosomes are highly syntenic with chicken microchromosomes, yet do not exhibit the high GC and low repeat content that are characteristic of avian microchromosomes(2). Also, A. carolinensis mobile elements are very young and diverse-more so than in any other sequenced amniote genome. The GC content of this lizard genome is also unusual in its homogeneity, unlike the regionally variable GC content found in mammals and birds(5). We describe and assign sequence to the previously unknown A. carolinensis X chromosome. Comparative gene analysis shows that amniote egg proteins have evolved significantly more rapidly than other proteins. An anole phylogeny resolves basal branches to illuminate the history of their repeated adaptive radiations.</p>
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4.
  • Amemiya, Chris T., et al. (författare)
  • The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 496:7445, s. 311-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.</p>
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5.
  • Amemiya, Chris T, et al. (författare)
  • The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 496:7445, s. 311-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.
6.
  • Baumann, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Artificially designed promoters : understanding the role of spatial features and canonical binding sites in transcription
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bioengineered Bugs. - 1949-1018 .- 1949-1026. ; 3:2, s. 120-123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The promoter is a key element in gene transcription and regulation. We previously reported that artificial sequences rich in the dinucleotide CpG are sufficient to drive expression in vitro in mammalian cell lines, without requiring canonical binding sites for transcription factor proteins. Here, we report that introducing a promoter organization that alternates in CpGs and regions rich in A and T further increases expression strength, as well as how insertion of specific binding sites makes such sequences respond to induced levels of the transcription factor NFκB. Our findings further contribute to the mechanistic understanding of promoters, as well as how these sequences might be shaped by evolutionary pressure in living organisms.</p>
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7.
  • Bellone, Rebecca R, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping and mutation analysis of TRPM1 : a candidate gene for leopard complex (LP) spotting and congenital stationary night blindness in horses
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Briefings in Functional Genomics & Proteomics. - 1473-9550 .- 1477-4062. ; 9:3, s. 193-207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Leopard Complex spotting occurs in several breeds of horses and is caused by an incompletely dominant allele (LP). Homozygosity for LP is also associated with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in Appaloosa horses. Previously, LP was mapped to a 6 cm region on ECA1 containing the candidate gene TRPM1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel, Subfamily M, Member 1) and decreased expression of this gene, measured by qRT-PCR, was identified as the likely cause of both spotting and ocular phenotypes. This study describes investigations for a mutation causing or associated with the Leopard Complex and CSNB phenotype in horses. Re-sequencing of the gene and associated splice sites within the 105 624 bp genomic region of TRPM1 led to the discovery of 18 SNPs. Most of the SNPs did not have a predictive value for the presence of LP. However, one SNP (ECA1:108,249,293 C&gt;T) found within intron 11 had a strong (P &lt; 0.0005), but not complete, association with LP and CSNB and thus is a good marker but unlikely to be causative. To further localize the association, 70 SNPs spanning over two Mb including the TRPM1 gene were genotyped in 192 horses from three different breeds segregating for LP. A single 173 kb haplotype associated with LP and CSNB (ECA1: 108,197,355- 108,370,150) was identified. Illumina sequencing of 300 kb surrounding this haplotype revealed 57 SNP variants. Based on their localization within expressed sequences or regions of high sequence conservation across mammals, six of these SNPs were considered to be the most likely candidate mutations. While the precise function of TRPM1 remains to be elucidated, this work solidifies its functional role in both pigmentation and night vision. Further, this work has identified several potential regulatory elements of the TRPM1 gene that should be investigated further in this and other species.</p>
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8.
  • Ching, Yung-Hao, et al. (författare)
  • High resolution mapping and positional cloning of ENU-induced mutations in the Rw region of mouse chromosome 5
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Genetics. - 1471-2156 .- 1471-2156. ; 11, s. 106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Forward genetic screens in mice provide an unbiased means to identify genes and other functional genetic elements in the genome. Previously, a large scale ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to query the functional content of a similar to 50 Mb region of the mouse genome on proximal Chr 5. The majority of phenotypic mutants recovered were embryonic lethals. Results: We report the high resolution genetic mapping, complementation analyses, and positional cloning of mutations in the target region. The collection of identified alleles include several with known or presumed functions for which no mutant models have been reported (Tbc1d14, Nol14, Tyms, Cad, Fbxl5, Haus3), and mutations in genes we or others previously reported (Tapt1, Rest, Ugdh, Paxip1, Hmx1, Otoe, Nsun7). We also confirmed the causative nature of a homeotic mutation with a targeted allele, mapped a lethal mutation to a large gene desert, and localized a spermiogenesis mutation to a region in which no annotated genes have coding mutations. The mutation in Tbc1d14 provides the first implication of a critical developmental role for RAB-GAP-mediated protein transport in early embryogenesis. Conclusion: This collection of alleles contributes to the goal of assigning biological functions to all known genes, as well as identifying novel functional elements that would be missed by reverse genetic approaches.</p>
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9.
  • Fairfield, Heather, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation discovery in mice by whole exome sequencing
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 12:9, s. R86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report the development and optimization of reagents for in-solution, hybridization-based capture of the mouse exome. By validating this approach in a multiple inbred strains and in novel mutant strains, we show that whole exome sequencing is a robust approach for discovery of putative mutations, irrespective of strain background. We found strong candidate mutations for the majority of mutant exomes sequenced, including new models of orofacial clefting, urogenital dysmorphology, kyphosis and autoimmune hepatitis.</p>
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10.
  • Grabherr, Manfred G., et al. (författare)
  • Exploiting Nucleotide Composition to Engineer Promoters
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS One. - 1932-6203. ; 6:5, s. e20136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The choice of promoter is a critical step in optimizing the efficiency and stability of recombinant protein production in mammalian cell lines. Artificial promoters that provide stable expression across cell lines and can be designed to the desired strength constitute an alternative to the use of viral promoters. Here, we show how the nucleotide characteristics of highly active human promoters can be modelled via the genome-wide frequency distribution of short motifs: by overlapping motifs that occur infrequently in the genome, we constructed contiguous sequence that is rich in GC and CpGs, both features of known promoters, but lacking homology to real promoters. We show that snippets from this sequence, at 100 base pairs or longer, drive gene expression in vitro in a number of mammalian cells, and are thus candidates for use in protein production. We further show that expression is driven by the general transcription factors TFIIB and TFIID, both being ubiquitously present across cell types, which results in less tissue-and species-specific regulation compared to the viral promoter SV40. We lastly found that the strength of a promoter can be tuned up and down by modulating the counts of GC and CpGs in localized regions. These results constitute a "proof-of-concept" for custom-designing promoters that are suitable for biotechnological and medical applications.</p>
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