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Sökning: WFRF:(Mazeh T.)

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1.
  • Brown, A. G A, et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Data Release 1 : Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. Aims. A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. Methods. The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. Results. Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues - a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) - and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of ∼3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr-1 for the proper motions. A systematic component of ∼0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of ∼94 000 Hipparcos stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr-1. For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is ∼10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to ∼0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. Conclusions. Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data.
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2.
  • Mignard, F., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Data Release 2 The celestial reference frame (Gaia-CRF2)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context: The second release of Gaia data (Gaia DR2) contains the astrometric parameters for more than half a million quasars. This set defines a kinematically non-rotating reference frame in the optical domain. A subset of these quasars have accurate VLBI positions that allow the axes of the reference frame to be aligned with the International Celestial Reference System (ICRF) radio frame.</p><p>Aims: We describe the astrometric and photometric properties of the quasars that were selected to represent the celestial reference frame of Gaia DR2 (Gaia-CRF2), and to compare the optical and radio positions for sources with accurate VLBI positions.</p><p>Methods: Descriptive statistics are used to characterise the overall properties of the quasar sample. Residual rotation and orientation errors and large-scale systematics are quantified by means of expansions in vector spherical harmonics. Positional differences are calculated relative to a prototype version of the forthcoming ICRF3.</p><p>Results: Gaia-CRF2 consists of the positions of a sample of 556 869 sources in Gaia DR2, obtained from a positional cross-match with the ICRF3-prototype and AllWISE AGN catalogues. The sample constitutes a clean, dense, and homogeneous set of extragalactic point sources in the magnitude range G similar or equal to 16 to 21 mag with accurately known optical positions. The median positional uncertainty is 0.12 mas for G &lt; 18 mag and 0.5 mas at G = 20 mag. Large-scale systematics are estimated to be in the range 20 to 30 mu as. The accuracy claims are supported by the parallaxes and proper motions of the quasars in Gaia DR2. The optical positions for a subset of 2820 sources in common with the ICRF3-prototype show very good overall agreement with the radio positions, but several tens of sources have significantly discrepant positions.</p><p>Conclusions: Based on less than 40% of the data expected from the nominal Gaia mission, Gaia-CRF2 is the first realisation of a non-rotating global optical reference frame that meets the ICRS prescriptions, meaning that it is built only on extragalactic sources. Its accuracy matches the current radio frame of the ICRF, but the density of sources in all parts of the sky is much higher, except along the Galactic equator.</p>
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3.
  • Spoto, F., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Data Release 2 Observations of solar system objects
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Context: The Gaia spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) has been securing observations of solar system objects (SSOs) since the beginning of its operations. Data Release 2 (DR2) contains the observations of a selected sample of 14,099 SSOs. These asteroids have been already identified and have been numbered by the Minor Planet Center repository. Positions are provided for each Gaia observation at CCD level. As additional information, complementary to astrometry, the apparent brightness of SSOs in the unfiltered G band is also provided for selected observations.</p><p>Aims: We explain the processing of SSO data, and describe the criteria we used to select the sample published in Gaia DR2. We then explore the data set to assess its quality.</p><p>Methods: To exploit the main data product for the solar system in Gaia DR2, which is the epoch astrometry of asteroids, it is necessary to take into account the unusual properties of the uncertainty, as the position information is nearly one-dimensional. When this aspect is handled appropriately, an orbit fit can be obtained with post-fit residuals that are overall consistent with the a-priori error model that was used to define individual values of the astrometric uncertainty. The role of both random and systematic errors is described. The distribution of residuals allowed us to identify possible contaminants in the data set (such as stars). Photometry in the G band was compared to computed values from reference asteroid shapes and to the flux registered at the corresponding epochs by the red and blue photometers (RP and BP).</p><p>Results: The overall astrometric performance is close to the expectations, with an optimal range of brightness G similar to 12 - 17. In this range, the typical transit-level accuracy is well below 1 mas. For fainter asteroids, the growing photon noise deteriorates the performance. Asteroids brighter than G similar to 12 are affected by a lower performance of the processing of their signals. The dramatic improvement brought by Gaia DR2 astrometry of SSOs is demonstrated by comparisons to the archive data and by preliminary tests on the detection of subtle non-gravitational effects.</p>
4.
  • van Leeuwen, F., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Data Release 1 : Open cluster astrometry: Performance, limitations, and future prospects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361. ; 601
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The first Gaia Data Release contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). This is a subset of about 2 million stars for which, besides the position and photometry, the proper motion and parallax are calculated using Hipparcos and Tycho-2 positions in 1991.25 as prior information. Aims. We investigate the scientific potential and limitations of the TGAS component by means of the astrometric data for open clusters. Methods. Mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are derived taking into account the error correlations within the astrometric solutions for individual stars, an estimate of the internal velocity dispersion in the cluster, and, where relevant, the effects of the depth of the cluster along the line of sight. Internal consistency of the TGAS data is assessed. Results. Values given for standard uncertainties are still inaccurate and may lead to unrealistic unit-weight standard deviations of least squares solutions for cluster parameters. Reconstructed mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are generally in very good agreement with earlier Hipparcos-based determination, although the Gaia mean parallax for the Pleiades is a significant exception. We have no current explanation for that discrepancy. Most clusters are observed to extend to nearly 15 pc from the cluster centre, and it will be up to future Gaia releases to establish whether those potential cluster-member stars are still dynamically bound to the clusters. Conclusions. The Gaia DR1 provides the means to examine open clusters far beyond their more easily visible cores, and can provide membership assessments based on proper motions and parallaxes. A combined HR diagram shows the same features as observed before using the Hipparcos data, with clearly increased luminosities for older A and F dwarfs.
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5.
  • Gandolfi, D., et al. (författare)
  • Kepler-423b: a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting a very old solar-like star
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 576
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the spectroscopic confirmation of the Kepler object of interest KOI-183.01 (Kepler-423b), a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting an old solar-like star every 2.7 days. Our analysis is the first to combine the full Kepler photometry (quarters 1 17) with high-precision radial velocity measurements taken with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We simultaneously modelled the photometric and spectroscopic data-sets using Bayesian approach coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We found that the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve of Kepler-423 exhibits quarter-to-quarter systematic variations of the transit depth, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of similar to 4.3% and seasonal trends reoccurring every four quarters. We attributed these systematics to an incorrect assessment of the quarterly variation of the crowding metric. The host star Kepler-423 is a G4 dwarf with M-* = 0.85 +/- 0.04 M-circle dot, R-* = 0.95 +/- 0.04 R-circle dot, T-eff = 5560 +/- 80 K, [M/H] = -0.10 +/- 0.05 dex, and with an age of 11 +/- 2 Gyr. The planet Kepler-423b has a mass of M-p = 0.595 +/- 0.081 M-Jup and a radius of R-p = 1.192 +/- 0.052 R-Jup, yielding a planetary bulk density of rho(p) = 0.459 +/- 0.083 g cm(-3). The radius of Kepler-423b is consistent with both theoretical models for irradiated coreless giant planets and expectations based on empirical laws. The inclination of the stellar spin axis suggests that the system is aligned along the line of sight. We detected a tentative secondary eclipse of the planet at a 2 sigma confidence level (Delta F-ec = 14.2 +/- 6.6 ppm) and found that the orbit might have a small non-zero eccentricity of 0.019(-0.014)(+0.028) . With a Bond albedo of A(B) = 0.037 +/- 0.019, Kepler-423b is one of the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far.
6.
  • Cabrera, J., et al. (författare)
  • Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: XXVII. CoRoT-28b, a planet orbiting an evolved star, and CoRoT-29b, a planet showing an asymmetric transit
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © ESO, 2015. Context. We present the discovery of two transiting extrasolar planets by the satellite CoRoT. Aims. We aim at a characterization of the planetary bulk parameters, which allow us to further investigate the formation and evolution of the planetary systems and the main properties of the host stars. Methods. We used the transit light curve to characterize the planetary parameters relative to the stellar parameters. The analysis of HARPS spectra established the planetary nature of the detections, providing their masses. Further photometric and spectroscopic ground-based observations provided stellar parameters (log g, Teff, vsini) to characterize the host stars. Our model takes the geometry of the transit to constrain the stellar density into account, which when linked to stellar evolutionary models, determines the bulk parameters of the star. Because of the asymmetric shape of the light curve of one of the planets, we had to include the possibility in our model that the stellar surface was not strictly spherical. Results. We present the planetary parameters of CoRoT-28b, a Jupiter-sized planet (mass 0.484 ± 0.087 MJup; radius 0.955 ± 0.066 RJup) orbiting an evolved star with an orbital period of 5.208 51 ± 0.000 38 days, and CoRoT-29b, another Jupiter-sized planet (mass 0.85 ± 0.20 MJup; radius 0.90 ± 0.16 RJup) orbiting an oblate star with an orbital period of 2.850 570 ± 0.000 006 days. The reason behind the asymmetry of the transit shape is not understood at this point. Conclusions. These two new planetary systems have very interesting properties and deserve further study, particularly in the case of the star CoRoT-29.
7.
  • Clavel, J., et al. (författare)
  • Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. An 8 month campaign of monitoring NGC 5548 with IUE
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 366:1, s. 64-8181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The authors present emission-line and ultraviolet continuum observations of a type I Seyfert galaxy in which the time resolution is adequate for describing the character of variability. Using the IUE satellite, the nucleus of NGC 5548 was observed every 4 days for a period of 8 months. Its mean properties-continuum shape, line ratios-are not unusual for type I Seyfert galaxies, but it was found to be strongly variable. The ultraviolet continuum flux and broad emission line fluxes varied significantly, going through three large maxima and three deep minima. The great majority of all variations were well resolved in time. The data lend qualitative support to the view that photoionization by the nuclear continuum is responsible for driving the emission lines</p>
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8.
  • Csizmadia, S., et al. (författare)
  • Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission XXVIII. CoRoT-33b, an object in the brown dwarf desert with 2:3 commensurability with its host star
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of a rare transiting brown dwarf with a mass of 59 M-Jup and radius of 1.1 R-Jup around the metal-rich, [Fe/H] = +0.44, G9V star CoRoT-33. The orbit is eccentric (e = 0.07) with a period of 5.82 d. The companion, CoRoT-33b, is thus a new member in the so-called brown dwarf desert. The orbital period is within 3% to a 3:2 resonance with the rotational period of the star. CoRoT-33b may be an important test case for tidal evolution studies. The true frequency of brown dwarfs close to their host stars (P
9.
  • Bordé, P., et al. (författare)
  • Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission: XXIX. The hot Jupiters CoRoT-30 b and CoRoT-31 b
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery as well as the orbital and physical characterizations of two new transiting giant exoplanets, CoRoT-30 b and CoRoT-31 b, with the CoRoT space telescope. Methods. We analyzed two complementary data sets: photometric transit light curves measured by CoRoT, and radial velocity curves measured by the HARPS spectrometer. To derive the absolute masses and radii of the planets, we modeled the stars from available magnitudes and spectra. Results. We find that CoRoT-30 b is a warm Jupiter on a close-to-circular 9.06-day orbit around a G3V star with a semi-major axis of about 0.08 AU. It has a radius of 1.01 ± 0.08 RJ, a mass of 2.90 ± 0.22 MJ, and therefore a mean density of 3.45 ± 0.65 g cm-3. The hot Jupiter CoRoT-31 b is on a close-to-circular 4.63-day orbit around a G2 IV star with a semi-major axis of about 0.05 AU. It has a radius of 1.46 ± 0.30 RJ, a mass of 0.84 ± 0.34 MJ, and therefore a mean density of 0.33 ± 0.18 g cm-3. Conclusions. Neither system seems to support the claim that stars hosting planets are more depleted in lithium. The radii of both planets are close to that of Jupiter, but they differ in mass; CoRoT-30 b is ten times denser than CoRoT-31 b. The core of CoRoT-30 b would weigh between 15 and 75 Earth masses, whereas relatively weak constraints favor no core for CoRoT-31 b. In terms of evolution, the characteristics of CoRoT-31 b appear to be compatible with the high-eccentricity migration scenario, which is not the case for CoRoT-30 b. The angular momentum of CoRoT-31 b is currently too low for the planet to evolve toward synchronization of its orbital revolution with stellar rotation, and the planet will slowly spiral-in while its host star becomes a red giant. CoRoT-30 b is not synchronized either: it looses angular momentum owing to stellar winds and is expected reach steady state in about 2 Gyr. CoRoT-30 and 31, as a pair, are a truly remarkable example of diversity in systems with hot Jupiters.
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10.
  • Deleuil, M., et al. (författare)
  • Planets, candidates, and binaries from the CoRoT/Exoplanet programme: The CoRoT transit catalogue
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CoRoT space mission observed 163 665 stars over 26 stellar fields in the faint star channel. The exoplanet teams detected a total of 4123 transit-like features in the 177 454 light curves. We present the complete re-analysis of all these detections carried out with the same softwares so that to ensure their homogeneous analysis. Although the vetting process involves some human evaluation, it also involves a simple binary flag system over basic tests: Detection significance, presence of a secondary, difference between odd and even depths, colour dependence, V-shape transit, and duration of the transit. We also gathered the information from the large accompanying ground-based programme carried out on the planet candidates and checked how useful the flag system could have been at the vetting stage of the candidates. From the initial list of transit-like features, we identified and separated 824 false alarms of various kind, 2269 eclipsing binaries among which 616 are contact binaries and 1653 are detached ones, 37 planets and brown dwarfs, and 557 planet candidates. We provide the catalogue of all these transit-like features, including false alarms. For the planet candidates, the catalogue gives not only their transit parameters but also the products of their light curve modelling: Reduced radius, reduced semi-major axis, and impact parameter, together with a summary of the outcome of follow-up observations when carried out and their current status. For the detached eclipsing binaries, the catalogue provides, in addition to their transit parameters, a simple visual classification. Among the planet candidates whose nature remains unresolved, we estimate that eight (within an error of three) planets are still to be identified. After correcting for geometric and sensitivity biases, we derived planet and brown dwarf occurrences and confirm disagreements with Kepler estimates, as previously reported by other authors from the analysis of the first runs: Small-size planets with orbital period less than ten days are underabundant by a factor of three in the CoRoT fields whereas giant planets are overabundant by a factor of two. These preliminary results would however deserve further investigations using the recently released CoRoT light curves that are corrected of the various instrumental effects and a homogeneous analysis of the stellar populations observed by the two missions.
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