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Sökning: WFRF:(McCloskey EV)

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1.
  • Borgström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Fragility fractures in Europe: burden, management and opportunities.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Archives of osteoporosis. - 1862-3514. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five countries of the European Union plus Sweden (EU6). In 2017, new fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated at 2.7 million with an associated annual cost of €37.5 billion and a loss of 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years.Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass and strength, which increases the risk of fragility fractures, which in turn, represent the main consequence of the disease. This report provides an overview and a comparison of the burden and management of fragility fractures in the largest five EU countries and Sweden (designated the EU6).A series of metrics describing the burden and management of fragility fractures were defined by a scientific steering committee. A working group performed the data collection and analysis. Data were collected from current literature, available retrospective data and public sources. Different methods were applied (e.g. standard statistics and health economic modelling), where appropriate, to perform the analysis for each metric.Total fragility fractures in the EU6 are estimated to increase from 2.7 million in 2017 to 3.3 million in 2030; a 23% increase. The resulting annual fracture-related costs (€37.5 billion in 2017) are expected to increase by 27%. An estimated 1.0 million quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were lost in 2017 due to fragility fractures. The current disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 individuals age 50 years or more were estimated at 21 years, which is higher than the estimates for stroke or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The treatment gap (percentage of eligible individuals not receiving treatment with osteoporosis drugs) in the EU6 is estimated to be 73% for women and 63% for men; an increase of 17% since 2010. If all patients who fracture in the EU6 were enrolled into fracture liaison services, at least 19,000 fractures every year might be avoided.Fracture-related burden is expected to increase over the coming decades. Given the substantial treatment gap and proven cost-effectiveness of fracture prevention schemes such as fracture liaison services, urgent action is needed to ensure that all individuals at high risk of fragility fracture are appropriately assessed and treated.
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2.
  • Borgström, F, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of risedronate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis using the FRAX(R).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 21:3, s. 495-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study estimated the cost-effectiveness of risedronate compared to no treatment in UK women using the FRAX algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A Markov cohort model was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness. Risedronate was found cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of risedronate for the prevention and treatment in a UK setting using the FRAX(R) algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A further aim was to establish intervention thresholds with risedronate treatment. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of risedronate was compared to no treatment in post-menopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture using a Markov cohort model populated with data relevant for the UK. The model incorporated the features of FRAX(R) (the WHO risk assessment tool). The analysis had a health care perspective and quality adjusted life years was used as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Treatment was cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. Treatment was also cost-effective at all ages in women who had previously sustained a fragility fracture or in women with a parental history of hip fracture with a bone mineral density set at the threshold of osteoporosis. At the pound30,000 threshold value for a QALY, risedronate was on average found to cost-effective below the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fractures of 13.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate is a cost-effective agent for the treatment of established osteoporosis (osteoporosis and a prior fragility fracture) in women from the age of 50 years and older and above 65 years in women with osteoporosis alone. The results support the treatment recommendations in recent UK guidelines for osteoporosis.
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4.
  • Johansson, Helena, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of BMD measurements to identify high risk groups for treatment--a test analysis.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 19:6, s. 906-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the role of BMD measurements in a case finding strategy. We studied 2113 women > or = 75 years of age randomly selected from Sheffield, UK, and adjacent regions. Baseline assessment included hip BMD and clinical risk factors. Outcomes included death and fracture in women followed for 6723 person-years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Poisson models were used to identify significant risk factors for all fractures and for death with and without BMD and the hazard functions were used to compute fracture probabilities. Women were categorized by fracture probability with and without a BMD assessment. A 10-year fracture probability threshold of 35% was taken as an intervention threshold. Discordance in categorization of risk (i.e., above or below the threshold probability) between assessment with and without BMD was examined by logistic regression as probabilities of re-classification. Age, prior fracture, use of corticosteroids, and low body mass index were identified as significant clinical risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 16.8% of women were classified as high risk based on these clinical risk factors. The average BMD in these patients was approximately 1 SD lower than in low-risk women; 21.5% of women were designated to be at high risk with the addition of BMD. Fifteen percent of all women were reclassified after adding BMD to clinical risk factors, most of whom lay near the intervention threshold. When a high probability of reclassification was accepted (without a BMD test) for high risk to low risk (p1< or = 0.8) and a low probability accepted for low to high risk (P2 < or = 0.2), BMD tests would be required in only 21% of the population. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the use of clinical risk factors can identify elderly women at high fracture risk and that such patients have a low average BMD. BMD testing is required, however, in a minority of women--a fraction that depends on the probabilities accepted for classification and the thresholds of risk chosen. These findings need to be validated in other cohorts at different ages and from different regions of the world.
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5.
  • Kanis, J A, et al. (författare)
  • A family history of fracture and fracture risk: a meta-analysis.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 35:5, s. 1029-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of the present study were to determine whether a parental history of any fracture or hip fracture specifically are significant risk factors for future fracture in an international setting, and to explore the effects of age, sex and bone mineral density (BMD) on this risk. We studied 34,928 men and women from seven prospectively studied cohorts followed for 134,374 person-years. The cohorts comprised the EPOS/EVOS study, CaMos, the Rotterdam Study, DOES and cohorts at Sheffield, Rochester and Gothenburg. The effect of family history of osteoporotic fracture or of hip fracture in first-degree relatives, BMD and age on all clinical fracture, osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture risk alone was examined using Poisson regression in each cohort and for each sex. The results of the different studies were merged from the weighted beta coefficients. A parental history of fracture was associated with a modest but significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture in men and women combined. The risk ratio (RR) for any fracture was 1.17 (95% CI=1.07-1.28), for any osteoporotic fracture was 1.18 (95% CI=1.06-1.31), and for hip fracture was 1.49 (95% CI=1.17-1.89). The risk ratio was higher at younger ages but not significantly so. No significant difference in risk was seen between men and women with a parental history for any fracture (RR=1.17 and 1.17, respectively) or for an osteoporotic fracture (RR=1.17 and 1.18, respectively). For hip fracture, the risk ratios were somewhat higher, but not significantly higher, in men than in women (RR=2.02 and 1.38, respectively). A family history of hip fracture in parents was associated with a significant risk both of all osteoporotic fracture (RR 1.54; 95CI=1.25-1.88) and of hip fracture (RR=2.27; 95% CI=1.47-3.49). The risk was not significantly changed when BMD was added to the model. We conclude that a parental history of fracture (particularly a family history of hip fracture) confers an increased risk of fracture that is independent of BMD. Its identification on an international basis supports the use of this risk factor in case-finding strategies.
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6.
  • Kanis, J A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 35:2, s. 375-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous fracture is a well-documented risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex, and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 15259 men and 44902 women from 11 cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, OFELY, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, DOES, Hiroshima, and two cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for a total of 250000 person-years. The effect of a prior history of fracture on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age, sex, and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged by using the weighted beta-coefficients. A previous fracture history was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture compared with individuals without a prior fracture (RR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.75-1.98). The risk ratio was similar for the outcome of osteoporotic fracture or for hip fracture. There was no significant difference in risk ratio between men and women. Risk ratio (RR) was marginally downward adjusted when account was taken of BMD. Low BMD explained a minority of the risk for any fracture (8%) and for hip fracture (22%). The risk ratio was stable with age except in the case of hip fracture outcome where the risk ratio decreased significantly with age. We conclude that previous history of fracture confers an increased risk of fracture of substantial importance beyond that explained by measurement of BMD. Its validation on an international basis permits the use of this risk factor in case finding strategies.
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7.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 19:6, s. 893-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between use of corticosteroids and fracture risk was estimated in a meta-analysis of data from seven cohort studies of approximately 42,000 men and women. Current and past use of corticosteroids was an important predictor of fracture risk that was independent of prior fracture and BMD. INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to validate that corticosteroid use is a significant risk factor for fracture in an international setting and to explore the effects of age and sex on this risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 42,500 men and women from seven prospectively studied cohorts followed for 176,000 patient-years. The cohorts comprised the EPOS/EVOS study, CaMos, the Rotterdam Study, Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES), and prospective cohorts at Sheffield, Rochester, and Gothenburg. The effect of ever use of corticosteroids, BMD, age, and sex on all fracture, osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture risk alone was examined using Poisson regression in each cohort and for each sex. The results of the different studies were merged from the weighted beta coefficients. RESULTS: Previous corticosteroid use was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture when adjusted for BMD. Relative risk of any fracture ranged from 1.98 at the age of 50 years to 1.66 at the age of 85 years. For osteoporotic fracture, the range of relative risk was 2.63-1.71, and for hip fracture 4.42-2.48. The estimate of relative risk was higher at younger ages, but not significantly so. No significant difference in risk was seen between men and women. The risk was marginally and not significantly upwardly adjusted when BMD was excluded from the model. The risk was independent of prior fracture. In the three cohorts that documented current corticosteroid use, BMD was significantly reduced at the femoral neck, but fracture risk was still only partly explained by BMD. CONCLUSION: We conclude that prior and current exposure to corticosteroids confers an increased risk of fracture that is of substantial importance beyond that explained by the measurement of BMD. Its identification on an international basis validates the use of this risk factor in case-finding strategies.
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8.
  • Kanis, J A, et al. (författare)
  • Case finding for the management of osteoporosis with FRAX--assessment and intervention thresholds for the UK.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 19:10, s. 1395-408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SUMMARY: Assessment and intervention thresholds are developed and proposed in men aged over 50 years and postmenopausal women for the UK based on fracture probability from the WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). INTRODUCTION: The FRAX tool has recently become available to compute the 10-year probability of fractures in men and women from clinical risk factors (CRFs) with or without the measurement of femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to develop a case-finding strategy for men and women from the UK at high risk of osteoporotic fracture by delineating the fracture probabilities at which BMD testing or intervention should be recommended. METHODS: Fracture probabilities were computed using the FRAX tool calibrated to the epidemiology of fracture and death in the UK. The relationship between cost effectiveness and fracture probability used the source data from a prior publication that examined the cost effectiveness of generic alendronate in the UK. An intervention threshold was set by age in men and women, based on the fracture probability equivalent to that of women with a history of a prior osteoporosis related fracture. In addition, assessment thresholds for the use of BMD testing were explored. Assessment thresholds for the measurement of BMD followed current practice guidelines where individuals were considered to be eligible for assessment in the presence of one or more CRF. An upper assessment threshold (i.e. a fracture probability above which patients could be treated without recourse to BMD) was based on optimisation of the positive predictive value of the assessment tool. The consequences of assessment and intervention thresholds on the requirement for BMD test and interventions were assessed using the distribution of clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD for women in the source cohorts used for the development of the FRAX models RESULTS: Treatment was cost effective at all ages when the 10-year probability of a major fracture exceeded 7%. The intervention threshold at the age of 50 years corresponded to a 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture of 7.5%. This rose progressively with age to 30% at the age of 80 years, so that intervention was cost effective at all ages. Assessment thresholds for testing with BMD (6-9% at the age of 50 years) also rose with age (18-36% at the age of 80 years). The use of these thresholds in a case-finding strategy would identify 6-20% of women as eligible for BMD testing and 23-46% as eligible for treatment, depending on age. The same threshold can be used in men. CONCLUSION: The study provides a method of developing management algorithms for osteoporosis from the estimation of fracture probabilities, rather than those based on BMD alone or BMD with single or multiple CRFs.
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9.
  • Kanis, J A, et al. (författare)
  • How to decide who to treat
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology. - 1532-1770. ; 23:6, s. 711-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fractures are the clinical consequence of osteoporosis and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although treatments are available that have been shown to decrease the risk of fracture, problems arise in identifying individuals at high risk of fracture so that intervention can be effectively targeted. Practice guidelines, available in many countries, differ markedly in approach, but generally recommend treatments on the basis of a previous fragility fracture and a defined threshold for bone mineral density (BMD). Recent developments in fracture risk assessment include the availability of the FRAX tool by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases at Sheffield, UK, that integrates the weight of clinical risk factors for fracture risk with or without information on BMD and computes the 10-year probability of fracture. The tool increases sensitivity without trading specificity and is now being used in the re-appraisal of clinical guidelines.
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10.
  • Kanis, J A, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 16:2, s. 155-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is widely considered a risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 59,232 men and women (74% female) from ten prospective cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, DOES, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, Hiroshima and two cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for a total of 250,000 person-years. The effect of current or past smoking, on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age, sex and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged using the weighted beta-coefficients. Current smoking was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture compared to non-smokers (RR=1.25; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.15-1.36). Risk ratio (RR) was adjusted marginally downward when account was taken of BMD, but it remained significantly increased (RR=1.13). For an osteoporotic fracture, the risk was marginally higher (RR=1.29; 95% CI=1.13-1.28). The highest risk was observed for hip fracture (RR=1.84; 95% CI=1.52-2.22), but this was also somewhat lower after adjustment for BMD (RR=1.60; 95% CI=1.27-2.02). Risk ratios were significantly higher in men than in women for all fractures and for osteoporotic fractures, but not for hip fracture. Low BMD accounted for only 23% of the smoking-related risk of hip fracture. Adjustment for body mass index had a small downward effect on risk for all fracture outcomes. For osteoporotic fracture, the risk ratio increased with age, but decreased with age for hip fracture. A smoking history was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture compared with individuals with no smoking history, but the risk ratios were lower than for current smoking. We conclude that a history of smoking results in fracture risk that is substantially greater than that explained by measurement of BMD. Its validation on an international basis permits the use of this risk factor in case finding strategies.
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