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Sökning: WFRF:(McDevitt S.)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Watson, H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 51:8, s. 1207-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness(1), affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men(2-4), with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%(5). Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders(6), and outcomes are unacceptably poor(7). Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)(8,9) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
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3.
  • Duncan, Laramie, et al. (författare)
  • Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 174:9, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes.Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h(2)SNP]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (rg) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes.Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h(2)SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes.Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.
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7.
  • McDevitt, Michael R., et al. (författare)
  • Feed-forward alpha particle radiotherapy ablates androgen receptor-addicted prostate cancer
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human kallikrein peptidase 2 (hK2) is a prostate specific enzyme whose expression is governed by the androgen receptor (AR). AR is the central oncogenic driver of prostate cancer (PCa) and is also a key regulator of DNA repair in cancer. We report an innovative therapeutic strategy that exploits the hormone-DNA repair circuit to enable molecularly-specific alpha particle irradiation of PCa. Alpha-particle irradiation of PCa is prompted by molecularly specific-targeting and internalization of the humanized monoclonal antibody hu11B6 targeting hK2 and further accelerated by inherent DNA-repair that up-regulate hK2 (KLK2) expression in vivo. hu11B6 demonstrates exquisite targeting specificity for KLK2. A single administration of actinium-225 labeled hu11B6 eradicates disease and significantly prolongs survival in animal models. DNA damage arising from alpha particle irradiation induces AR and subsequently KLK2, generating a unique feed-forward mechanism, which increases binding of hu11B6. Imaging data in nonhuman primates support the possibility of utilizing hu11B6 in man.
8.
  • Thorek, Daniel L.J., et al. (författare)
  • Harnessing androgen receptor pathway activation for targeted alpha particle radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 25:2, s. 881-891
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The impact of androgen receptor (AR) activity Results: D-Norgestrel and DHT activated the AR pathway, in breast cancer biology is unclear. We characterized and while 17b-Estradiol did not. Competitive binding for AR tested a novel therapy to an AR-governed target in breast protein showed similar affinity between DHT and D-Norges-cancer. trel, indicating direct AR–ligand interaction. In vivo production Experimental Design: We evaluated the expression of of hK2 was sufficient to achieve site-specific delivery of ther-prototypical AR gene products human kallikrein 2 (hK2) apeutic radionuclide to tumor tissue at >20-fold over back- and PSA in breast cancer models. We screened 13 well-ground muscle uptake; effecting long-term local tumor characterized breast cancer cell lines for hK2 and PSA control. production upon in vitro hormone stimulation by testoster-Conclusions: [225Ac]hu11B6 targeted radiotherapy one [dihydrotestosterone (DHT)]. AR-positive lines were was potentiated by DHT and by D-Norgestrel in murine further evaluated by exposure to estrogen (17b-Estradiol) xenograft models of breast cancer. AR activity in and the synthetic progestin D-Norgestrel. We then evaluated breast cancer correlates with kallikrein-related peptidase-2 an anti-hK2–targeted radiotherapy platform (hu11B6), and can be activated by D-Norgestrel, a common con-labeled with alpha (a)-particle emitting Actinium-225, to traceptive, and AR induction can be harnessed for hK2-specifically treat AR-expressing breast cancer xenografts targeted breast cancer a-emitter radiotherapy. under hormone stimulation.
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9.
  • Herman, Jeremy S., et al. (författare)
  • Land-Bridge Calibration of Molecular Clocks and the Post-Glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian Field Vole Microtus agrestis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e103949
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole ( Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA ( including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration.</p>
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