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Sökning: WFRF:(McDougall T. J.)

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  • Alminger, Marie, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • In Vitro Models for Studying Secondary Plant Metabolite Digestion and Bioaccessibility
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. - 1541-4337. ; 13:4, s. 413-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is an increased interest in secondary plant metabolites, such as polyphenols and carotenoids, due to their proposed health benefits. Much attention has focused on their bioavailability, a prerequisite for further physiological functions. As human studies are time consuming, costly, and restricted by ethical concerns, in vitro models for investigating the effects of digestion on these compounds have been developed and employed to predict their release from the food matrix, bioaccessibility, and assess changes in their profiles prior to absorption. Most typically, models simulate digestion in the oral cavity, the stomach, the small intestine, and, occasionally, the large intestine. A plethora of models have been reported, the choice mostly driven by the type of phytochemical studied, whether the purpose is screening or studying under close physiological conditions, and the availability of the model systems. Unfortunately, the diversity of model conditions has hampered the ability to compare results across different studies. For example, there is substantial variability in the time of digestion, concentrations of salts, enzymes, and bile acids used, pH, the inclusion of various digestion stages; and whether chosen conditions are static (with fixed concentrations of enzymes, bile salts, digesta, and so on) or dynamic (varying concentrations of these constituents). This review presents an overview of models that have been employed to study the digestion of both lipophilic and hydrophilic phytochemicals, comparing digestive conditions in vitro and in vivo and, finally, suggests a set of parameters for static models that resemble physiological conditions.
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  • Bohn, T., et al. (författare)
  • Mind the gap - deficits in our knowledge of aspects impacting bioavailability of phytochemicals and their metabolites - a position paper focusing on carotenoids and polyphenols
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. - 16134133 .- 16134125. ; 59:7, s. 1307-13231-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various secondary plant metabolites or phytochemicals, including polyphenols and carotenoids, have been associated with a variety of health benefits, such as reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer, most likely due to their involvement in ameliorating inflammatory and oxidative stress. However, discrepancies exist between their putative effects when comparing observational and intervention studies, especially when using pure compounds. These discrepancies may in part be explained by differences in intake levels and their bioavailability. Prior to exerting their bioactivity, these compounds must be made bioavailable, and considerable differences may arise due to their their matrix release, changes during digestion, uptake, metabolism, and biodistribution, even before considering dose and host related factors. Though many insights have been gained on factors affecting secondary plant metabolite bioavailability, many gaps still exist in our knowledge. In this position paper, we highlight several major gaps in our understanding of phytochemical bioavailability, including effects of food processing, changes during digestion, involvement of cellular transporters in influx/efflux through the gastrointestinal epithelium, changes during colonic fermentation, and their phase I and phase II metabolism following absorption.
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  • de lavergne, C., et al. (författare)
  • Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7679, s. 181-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows-referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation-is key to quantifying the ocean's ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32 degrees S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southernorigin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.</p>
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  • Sobotka, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Single Sustained Inflation followed by Ventilation Leads to Rapid Cardiorespiratory Recovery but Causes Cerebral Vascular Leakage in Asphyxiated Near-Term Lambs
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A sustained inflation (SI) rapidly restores cardiac function in asphyxic, bradycardic newborns but its effects on cerebral haemodynamics and brain injury are unknown. We determined the effect of different SI strategies on carotid blood flow (CaBF) and cerebral vascular integrity in asphyxiated near-term lambs. Lambs were instrumented and delivered at 139 +/- 2 d gestation and asphyxia was induced by delaying ventilation onset. Lambs were randomised to receive 5 consecutive 3 s SI (multiple SI; n = 6), a single 30 s SI (single SI; n = 6) or conventional ventilation (no SI; n = 6). Ventilation continued for 30 min in all lambs while CaBF and respiratory function parameters were recorded. Brains were assessed for gross histopathology and vascular leakage. CaBF increased more rapidly and to a greater extent during a single SI (p = 0.01), which then decreased below both other groups by 10 min, due to a higher cerebral oxygen delivery (p = 0.01). Blood brain barrier disruption was increased in single SI lambs as indicated by increased numbers of blood vessel profiles with plasma protein extravasation (p = 0.001) in the cerebral cortex. There were no differences in CaBF or cerebral oxygen delivery between the multiple SI and no SI lambs. Ventilation with an initial single 30 s SI improves circulatory recovery, but is associated with greater disruption of blood brain barrier function, which may exacerbate brain injury suffered by asphyxiated newborns. This injury may occur as a direct result of the initial SI or to the higher tidal volumes delivered during subsequent ventilation.
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