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Sökning: WFRF:(McFadden John)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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2.
  • Curtis, Bruce A., et al. (författare)
  • Algal genomes reveal evolutionary mosaicism and the fate of nucleomorphs
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 492:7427, s. 59-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have >21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host-and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.
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  • Bruze, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Contact Allergy to Fragrance Mix II and Hydroxyisohexyl 3-Cyclohexene Carboxaldehyde : A Retrospective Study by International Contact Dermatitis Research Group
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1710-3568. ; 31:4, s. 268-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Fragrance mix II (FM II) is included in the baseline patch test series recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG). Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) is the most important sensitizer of the 6 fragrance materials included in FM II. Besides being a part of FM II, HICC is also tested separately in the ICDRG baseline series. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to FM II and HICC in 2012-2016 with a focus on simultaneous reactions and the percentage of missed contact allergy to HICC provided that only FM II had been tested. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 25,019 consecutive dermatitis patients in 13 dermatology clinics representing 12 countries in 5 continents were patch tested with FM II and HICC in the baseline series. RESULTS: Contact allergy to FM II and HICC was found in 3.9% and 1.6%, respectively. For FM II, the frequency varied from 1.5% to 7.6% in different centers. The corresponding range for HICC was 0.2% to 3.6%. Simultaneous contact allergy to FM II and HICC was noted in 1.4% with the range 0.2% to 2.6%. Seventy-seven patients (0.31%) with contact allergy to HICC did not test positively to FM II. The range for missed HICC allergy by testing only FM II in the different centers would be 0.04% to 0.74%. The ratio between the contact allergy rates for FM II and HICC was similar for all centers, except for Montreal having significantly more contact allergy to FM II than to HICC. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of missed contact allergy to HICC when testing only with FM II was less than 0.5%, therefore questioning the need to test HICC separately in the ICDRG baseline series.
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5.
  • Buitink, S., et al. (författare)
  • A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 10(17)-10(17.5) electronvolts from radio observations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 531:7592, s. 70-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 10(17)-10(18) electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal1 comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies(2). Cosmic rays initiate air showers-cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere-and their masses can be inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum3 (Xmax; the depth of the air shower when it contains the most particles) or of the composition of shower particles reaching the ground(4). Current measurements(5) have either high uncertainty, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays(6-8) is a rapidly developing technique(9) for determining Xmax (refs 10, 11) with a duty cycle of, in principle, nearly 100 per cent. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic electrons and positrons in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge excess in the shower front(6,12). Here we report radio measurements of X-max with a mean uncertainty of 16 grams per square centimetre for air showers initiated by cosmic rays with energies of 1017-1017.5 electronvolts. This high resolution in Xmax enables us to determine the mass spectrum of the cosmic rays: we find a mixed composition, with a light-mass fraction (protons and helium nuclei) of about 80 per cent. Unless, contrary to current expectations, the extragalactic component of cosmic rays contributes substantially to the total flux below 10(17.5) electronvolts, our measurements indicate the existence of an additional galactic component, to account for the light composition that we measured in the 10(17)-10(17.5) electronvolt range.
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6.
  • Heald, G. H., et al. (författare)
  • The LOFAR Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS) I. Survey description and first results
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 582, s. 22-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multifrequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the detected sources over more than two octaves (from 30 to 160 MHz). The broadband frequency coverage, together with the fast survey speed generated by LOFAR's multibeaming capabilities, make MSSS the first survey of the sort anticipated to be carried out with the forthcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Two of the sixteen frequency bands included in the survey were chosen to exactly overlap the frequency coverage of large-area Very Large Array (VLA) and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) surveys at 74MHz and 151MHz respectively. The survey performance is illustrated within the MSSS Verification Field (MVF), a region of 100 square degrees centered at (alpha, delta)(J2000) = (15(h), 69 degrees). The MSSS results from the MVF are compared with previous radio survey catalogs. We assess the flux and astrometric uncertainties in the catalog, as well as the completeness and reliability considering our source finding strategy. We determine the 90% completeness levels within the MVF to be 100 mJy at 135 MHz with 108 '' resolution, and 550 mJy at 50 MHz with 166 '' resolution. Images and catalogs for the full survey, expected to contain 150 000-200 000 sources, will be released to a public web server. We outline the plans for the ongoing production of the final survey products, and the ultimate public release of images and source catalogs.
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8.
  • Isaksson, Marléne, et al. (författare)
  • Multicenter patch testing with methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone within the international contact dermatitis research group
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Dermatitis. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1710-3568. ; 28:3, s. 210-214
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The preservatives methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) and MI are well-known contact sensitizers. Recently, an increase in the contact allergy frequency for MI 0.2% aqueous (aq) has been seen in many European countries paralleled with an increase in MCI/MI allergy. Many of the MI-allergic patients do not react to MCI/MI 0.01% or 0.02% because the concentration of MI in these preparations is too low (25 and 50 ppm, respectively) to elicit a positive patch test reaction. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to MI in the participating clinics representing various countries all over the world, to assess how many additional individuals with contact allergy are found by testing MI 0.2% aq in parallel with MCI/MI 0.02%, and to assess the clinical relevance of MI and MCI/MI allergies. Patients and Methods: In 9 dermatology clinics representing 9 countries, 3865 consecutive patients with dermatitis were patch tested with MI 0.2% aq and in parallel with MCI/MI 0.02% aq, provisionally included into the baseline series. An assessment of clinical relevance in those allergic to MI was also made. Results: Contact allergy to MI was found in 284 patients (7.3%). The frequency of contact allergy varied from 0.8% to 10.9% in different centers. Simultaneous reactivity to 200 ppm of MCI/MI was found in 67.3% of the MI-positive patients. Contact allergy to MI alone without any simultaneous contact allergy to 200 ppm of MCI/MI was diagnosed in 93 patients (32.7%; 2.4% of all tested patients). The contact allergy to MI and/or MCI/MI could explain or contribute to dermatitis in more than 60% of the MI-allergic patients. Conclusions: Methylisothiazolinone of 2000 ppm needs to be patch tested on its own to not miss contact allergy.
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9.
  • Isaksson, Marléne, et al. (författare)
  • Patch Testing With Formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) Detects More Contact Allergy to Formaldehyde Than 1.0
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Dermatitis : contact, atopic, occupational, drug. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1710-3568. ; 30:6, s. 342-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group increased the patch test concentration of formaldehyde from 1.0% aqueous (aq) to 2.0% aq (in 2011). OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of the decision. METHODS: Consecutive dermatitis patients in 8 different clinics were patch tested with formaldehyde 1.0% aq and 2.0% aq. The test solutions were applied with a micropipette to the filter paper discs in the respective chamber. RESULTS: A total of 2778 patients were tested with 1.0% aq and 2766 to 2.0% aq. Sixty-five patients (2.3%, calculated from 2766 tested, to 2.0% aq) had positive patch test reactions interpreted as contact allergy to formaldehyde. This is a rather low frequency. Of these 65, 46 were women (46/1703 [2.7%]) and 19 were men (19/1063 [1.8%]). Thirty-six reacted only to 2.0% aq, 21 patients reacted to both concentrations, and 8 patients reacted only to 1.0% aq. Significantly, more patients reacted to 2.0% aq compared with 1.0% aq (P < 0.001). There was no significant sex difference. A total of 0.8% irritant reactions were recorded to formaldehyde 2.0% aq and 0.1% to 1.0% aq. CONCLUSIONS: The increased formaldehyde patch test concentration to 2.0% aq revealed more formaldehyde contact allergy.
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