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Sökning: WFRF:(McNeil Catriona)

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1.
  • Rosqvist, Fredrik, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 109:2, s. 260-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL. Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet. Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using (H2O)-H-2(deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Neither the lipogenic index (16: 0/18: 2n-6) nor the SCD index (16: 1n-7/16: 0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = -0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14: 0, 16: 0, and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r <= 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16: 1n-7, 18: 1n-7, and 18: 1n-9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14: 0 and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low(3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL. Conclusions: The usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.
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2.
  • Ascierto, Paolo A, et al. (författare)
  • Survival Outcomes in Patients With Previously Untreated BRAF Wild-Type Advanced Melanoma Treated With Nivolumab Therapy: Three-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA oncology. - 2374-2445. ; 5:2, s. 187-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This analysis provides long-term follow-up in patients with BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma receiving first-line therapy based on anti-programmed cell death 1 receptor inhibitors.To compare the 3-year survival with nivolumab vs that with dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma.This follow-up of a randomized phase 3 trial analyzed 3-year overall survival data from the randomized, controlled, double-blind CheckMate 066 phase 3 clinical trial. For this ongoing, multicenter academic institution trial, patients were enrolled from January 2013 through February 2014. Eligible patients were 18 years or older with confirmed unresectable previously untreated stage III or IV melanoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 but without a BRAF mutation.Patients were treated until progression or unacceptable toxic events with nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus dacarbazine-matched placebo every 3 weeks) or dacarbazine (1000 mg/m2 every 3 weeks plus nivolumab-matched placebo every 2 weeks).Overall survival.At minimum follow-ups of 38.4 months among 210 participants in the nivolumab group (median age, 64 years [range, 18-86 years]; 57.6% male) and 38.5 months among 208 participants in the dacarbazine group (median age, 66 years [range, 25-87 years]; 60.1% male), 3-year overall survival rates were 51.2% (95% CI, 44.1%-57.9%) and 21.6% (95% CI, 16.1%-27.6%), respectively. The median overall survival was 37.5 months (95% CI, 25.5 months-not reached) in the nivolumab group and 11.2 months (95% CI, 9.6-13.0 months) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.36-0.59; P < .001). Complete and partial responses, respectively, were reported for 19.0% (40 of 210) and 23.8% (50 of 210) of patients in the nivolumab group compared with 1.4% (3 of 208) and 13.0% (27 of 208) of patients in the dacarbazine group. Additional analyses were performed on outcomes with subsequent therapies. Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 15.0% (31 of 206) of nivolumab-treated patients and in 17.6% (36 of 205) of dacarbazine-treated patients. There were no deaths due to study drug toxic effects.Nivolumab led to improved 3-year overall survival vs dacarbazine in patients with previously untreated BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01721772.
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3.
  • Nikolaou, Nikolaos, et al. (författare)
  • AKR1D1 is a novel regulator of metabolic phenotype in human hepatocytes and is dysregulated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Metabolism: clinical and experimental. - 1532-8600. ; 99, s. 67-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Steroid hormones and bile acids are potent regulators of hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) is highly expressed in human liver where it inactivates steroid hormones and catalyzes a fundamental step in bile acid synthesis.Human liver biopsies were obtained from 34 obese patients and AKR1D1 mRNA expression levels were measured using qPCR. Genetic manipulation of AKR1D1 was performed in human HepG2 and Huh7 liver cell lines. Metabolic assessments were made using transcriptome analysis, western blotting, mass spectrometry, clinical biochemistry, and enzyme immunoassays.In human liver biopsies, AKR1D1 expression decreased with advancing steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. Expression was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes. In human liver cell lines, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased primary bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone clearance. RNA-sequencing identified disruption of key metabolic pathways, including insulin action and fatty acid metabolism. AKR1D1 knockdown increased hepatocyte triglyceride accumulation, insulin sensitivity, and glycogen synthesis, through increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased β-oxidation, fueling hepatocyte inflammation. Pharmacological manipulation of bile acid receptor activation prevented the induction of lipogenic and carbohydrate genes, suggesting that the observed metabolic phenotype is driven through bile acid rather than steroid hormone availability.Genetic manipulation of AKR1D1 regulates the metabolic phenotype of human hepatoma cell lines, driving steatosis and inflammation. Taken together, the observation that AKR1D1 mRNA is down-regulated with advancing NAFLD suggests that it may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease.
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4.
  • Robert, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Five-Year Outcomes With Nivolumab in Patients With Wild-Type BRAF Advanced Melanoma.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 38:33, s. 3937-3946
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The CheckMate 066 trial investigated nivolumab monotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with previously untreated BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma. Five-year results are presented herein.In this multicenter, double-blind, phase III study, 418 patients with previously untreated, unresectable, stage III/IV, wild-type BRAF melanoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or dacarbazine 1,000 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival (OS), and secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety.Patients were followed for a minimum of 60 months from the last patient randomly assigned (median follow-up, 32.0 months for nivolumab and 10.9 months for dacarbazine). Five-year OS rates were 39% with nivolumab and 17% with dacarbazine; PFS rates were 28% and 3%, respectively. Five-year OS was 38% in patients randomly assigned to dacarbazine who had subsequent therapy, including nivolumab (n = 37). ORR was 42% with nivolumab and 14% with dacarbazine; among patients alive at 5 years, ORR was 81% and 39%, respectively. Of 42 patients treated with nivolumab who had a complete response (20%), 88% (37 of 42) were alive as of the 5-year analysis. Among 75 nivolumab-treated patients alive and evaluable at the 5-year analysis, 83% had not received subsequent therapy; 23% were still on study treatment, and 60% were treatment free. Safety analyses were similar to the 3-year report.Results from this 5-year analysis confirm the significant benefit of nivolumab over dacarbazine for all end points and add to the growing body of evidence supporting long-term survival with nivolumab mono-therapy. Survival is strongly associated with achieving a durable response, which can be maintained after treatment discontinuation, even without subsequent systemic therapies.
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5.
  • Robert, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Nivolumab in Previously Untreated Melanoma without BRAF Mutation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 372:4, s. 320-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks and dacarbazine-matched placebo every 3 weeks) or dacarbazine (at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks and nivolumab-matched placebo every 2 weeks). The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS At 1 year, the overall rate of survival was 72.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.5 to 78.9) in the nivolumab group, as compared with 42.1% (95% CI, 33.0 to 50.9) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.42; 99.79% CI, 0.25 to 0.73; P < 0.001). The median progression-free survival was 5.1 months in the nivolumab group versus 2.2 months in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death or progression of disease, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.56; P < 0.001). The objective response rate was 40.0% (95% CI, 33.3 to 47.0) in the nivolumab group versus 13.9% (95% CI, 9.5 to 19.4) in the dacarbazine group (odds ratio, 4.06; P < 0.001). The survival benefit with nivolumab versus dacarbazine was observed across prespecified subgroups, including subgroups defined by status regarding the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Common adverse events associated with nivolumab included fatigue, pruritus, and nausea. Drug-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 11.7% of the patients treated with nivolumab and 17.6% of those treated with dacarbazine. CONCLUSIONS Nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in overall survival and progression-free survival, as compared with dacarbazine, among previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation.
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