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Sökning: WFRF:(Meadows Jennifer R. S.)

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1.
  • Eriksson, D, et al. (författare)
  • Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:6, s. 595-608
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology.METHODS: To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls.RESULTS: We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10(-15) , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex.CONCLUSION: Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment.
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2.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) locus is associated with autoimmune Addison's disease in Sweden.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - : Nature Publishing Group: Open Access Journals - Option C / Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the predominating cause of primary adrenal failure. Despite its high heritability, the rarity of disease has long made candidate-gene studies the only feasible methodology for genetic studies. Here we conducted a comprehensive reinvestigation of suggested AAD risk loci and more than 1800 candidate genes with associated regulatory elements in 479 patients with AAD and 2394 controls. Our analysis enabled us to replicate many risk variants, but several other previously suggested risk variants failed confirmation. By exploring the full set of 1800 candidate genes, we further identified common variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) as a novel risk locus associated to sporadic AAD in our study. Our findings not only confirm that multiple loci are associated with disease risk, but also show to what extent the multiple risk loci jointly associate to AAD. In total, risk loci discovered to date only explain about 7% of variance in liability to AAD in our study population.
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3.
  • Rubin, Carl-Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Whole genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - London : Macmillan Publishers Limited. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7288, s. 587-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Domestic animals are excellent models for genetic studies of phenotypic evolution. They have evolved genetic adaptations to a new environment, the farm, and have been subjected to strong human-driven selection leading to remarkable phenotypic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. Identifying the genetic changes underlying these developments provides new insight into general mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes phenotypic diversity. Here we describe the use of massively parallel sequencing to identify selective sweeps of favourable alleles and candidate mutations that have had a prominent role in the domestication of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their subsequent specialization into broiler (meat-producing) and layer (egg-producing) chickens. We have generated 44.5-fold coverage of the chicken genome using pools of genomic DNA representing eight different populations of domestic chickens as well as red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the major wild ancestor. We report more than 7,000,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, almost 1,300 deletions and a number of putative selective sweeps. One of the most striking selective sweeps found in all domestic chickens occurred at the locus for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which has a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and photoperiod control of reproduction in vertebrates. Several of the selective sweeps detected in broilers overlapped genes associated with growth, appetite and metabolic regulation. We found little evidence that selection for loss-of-function mutations had a prominent role in chicken domestication, but we detected two deletions in coding sequences that we suggest are functionally important. This study has direct application to animal breeding and enhances the importance of the domestic chicken as a model organism for biomedical research.
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4.
  • Thorlacius, Guðný Ella, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and clinical basis for two distinct subtypes of primary Sjögren's syndrome.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324 .- 1462-0332.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Clinical presentation of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) varies considerably. A shortage of evidence-based objective markers hinders efficient drug development and most clinical trials have failed to reach primary endpoints.METHODS: We performed a multicentre study to identify patient subgroups based on clinical, immunological and genetic features. Targeted DNA sequencing of 1853 autoimmune-related loci was performed. After quality control, 918 patients with pSS, 1264 controls and 107 045 single nucleotide variants remained for analysis. Replication was performed in 177 patients with pSS and 7672 controls.RESULTS: We found strong signals of association with pSS in the HLA region. Principal component analysis of clinical data distinguished two patient subgroups defined by the presence of SSA/SSB antibodies. We observed an unprecedented high risk of pSS for an association in the HLA-DQA1 locus of odds ratio 6.10 (95% CI: 4.93, 7.54, P=2.2×10-62) in the SSA/SSB-positive subgroup, while absent in the antibody negative group. Three independent signals within the MHC were observed. The two most significant variants in MHC class I and II respectively, identified patients with a higher risk of hypergammaglobulinaemia, leukopenia, anaemia, purpura, major salivary gland swelling and lymphadenopathy. Replication confirmed the association with both MHC class I and II signals confined to SSA/SSB antibody positive pSS.CONCLUSION: Two subgroups of patients with pSS with distinct clinical manifestations can be defined by the presence or absence of SSA/SSB antibodies and genetic markers in the HLA locus. These subgroups should be considered in clinical follow-up, drug development and trial outcomes, for the benefit of both subgroups.
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5.
  • Genereux, Diane P., et al. (författare)
  • A comparative genomics multitool for scientific discovery and conservation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 587:7833, s. 240-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A whole-genome alignment of 240 phylogenetically diverse species of eutherian mammal-including 131 previously uncharacterized species-from the Zoonomia Project provides data that support biological discovery, medical research and conservation. The Zoonomia Project is investigating the genomics of shared and specialized traits in eutherian mammals. Here we provide genome assemblies for 131 species, of which all but 9 are previously uncharacterized, and describe a whole-genome alignment of 240 species of considerable phylogenetic diversity, comprising representatives from more than 80% of mammalian families. We find that regions of reduced genetic diversity are more abundant in species at a high risk of extinction, discern signals of evolutionary selection at high resolution and provide insights from individual reference genomes. By prioritizing phylogenetic diversity and making data available quickly and without restriction, the Zoonomia Project aims to support biological discovery, medical research and the conservation of biodiversity.
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6.
  • Baranowska Körberg, Izabella, et al. (författare)
  • A Simple Repeat Polymorphism in the MITF-M Promoter Is a Key Regulator of White Spotting in Dogs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e104363-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The white spotting locus (S) in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor) gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S) to extreme white spotting (s(w)). We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w) allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.
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7.
  • Andersson, Lisa S., et al. (författare)
  • The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Immunogenetics. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0093-7711 .- 1432-1211. ; 64:3, s. 201-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p(raw)=2.34x10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p=0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.
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8.
  • Höppner, Marc P., et al. (författare)
  • An Improved Canine Genome and a Comprehensive Catalogue of Coding Genes and Non-Coding Transcripts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:3, s. e91172-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is a well-established model system for mapping trait and disease loci. While the original draft sequence was of good quality, gaps were abundant particularly in promoter regions of the genome, negatively impacting the annotation and study of candidate genes. Here, we present an improved genome build, canFam3.1, which includes 85 MB of novel sequence and now covers 99.8% of the euchromatic portion of the genome. We also present multiple RNA-Sequencing data sets from 10 different canine tissues to catalog similar to 175,000 expressed loci. While about 90% of the coding genes previously annotated by EnsEMBL have measurable expression in at least one sample, the number of transcript isoforms detected by our data expands the EnsEMBL annotations by a factor of four. Syntenic comparison with the human genome revealed an additional similar to 3,000 loci that are characterized as protein coding in human and were also expressed in the dog, suggesting that those were previously not annotated in the EnsEMBL canine gene set. In addition to,20,700 high-confidence protein coding loci, we found,4,600 antisense transcripts overlapping exons of protein coding genes, similar to 7,200 intergenic multi-exon transcripts without coding potential, likely candidates for long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and,11,000 transcripts were reported by two different library construction methods but did not fit any of the above categories. Of the lincRNAs, about 6,000 have no annotated orthologs in human or mouse. Functional analysis of two novel transcripts with shRNA in a mouse kidney cell line altered cell morphology and motility. All in all, we provide a much-improved annotation of the canine genome and suggest regulatory functions for several of the novel non-coding transcripts.
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9.
  • Wright, Dominic, et al. (författare)
  • Copy number variation in intron 1 of SOX5 causes the Pea-comb phenotype in chickens
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 5:6, s. e1000512-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pea-comb is a dominant mutation in chickens that drastically reduces the size of the comb and wattles. It is an adaptive trait in cold climates as it reduces heat loss and makes the chicken less susceptible to frost lesions. Here we report that Pea-comb is caused by a massive amplification of a duplicated sequence located near evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in intron 1 of the gene encoding the SOX5 transcription factor. This must be the causative mutation since all other polymorphisms associated with the Pea-comb allele were excluded by genetic analysis. SOX5 controls cell fate and differentiation and is essential for skeletal development, chondrocyte differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Immunostaining in early embryos demonstrated that Pea-comb is associated with ectopic expression of SOX5 in mesenchymal cells located just beneath the surface ectoderm where the comb and wattles will subsequently develop. The results imply that the duplication expansion interferes with the regulation of SOX5 expression during the differentiation of cells crucial for the development of comb and wattles. The study provides novel insight into the nature of mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution and is the first description of a spontaneous and fully viable mutation in this developmentally important gene.
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10.
  • Eriksson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) locus is associated with autoimmune Addisons disease in Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune Addisons disease (AAD) is the predominating cause of primary adrenal failure. Despite its high heritability, the rarity of disease has long made candidate-gene studies the only feasible methodology for genetic studies. Here we conducted a comprehensive reinvestigation of suggested AAD risk loci and more than 1800 candidate genes with associated regulatory elements in 479 patients with AAD and 2394 controls. Our analysis enabled us to replicate many risk variants, but several other previously suggested risk variants failed confirmation. By exploring the full set of 1800 candidate genes, we further identified common variation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) as a novel risk locus associated to sporadic AAD in our study. Our findings not only confirm that multiple loci are associated with disease risk, but also show to what extent the multiple risk loci jointly associate to AAD. In total, risk loci discovered to date only explain about 7% of variance in liability to AAD in our study population.
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