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Sökning: WFRF:(Mehran Roxana)

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  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Liu, Dajiang J., et al. (författare)
  • Exome-wide association study of plasma lipids in > 300,000 individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 49:12, s. 1758-1766
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We screened variants on an exome-focused genotyping array in >300,000 participants (replication in >280,000 participants) and identified 444 independent variants in 250 loci significantly associated with total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-densitylipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG). At two loci (JAK2 and A1CF), experimental analysis in mice showed lipid changes consistent with the human data. We also found that: (i) beta-thalassemia trait carriers displayed lower TC and were protected from coronary artery disease (CAD); (ii) excluding the CETP locus, there was not a predictable relationship between plasma HDL-C and risk for age-related macular degeneration; (iii) only some mechanisms of lowering LDL-C appeared to increase risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D); and (iv) TG-lowering alleles involved in hepatic production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TM6SF2 and PNPLA3) tracked with higher liver fat, higher risk for T2D, and lower risk for CAD, whereas TG-lowering alleles involved in peripheral lipolysis (LPL and ANGPTL4) had no effect on liver fat but decreased risks for both T2D and CAD.
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2.
  • Angiolillo, Dominick J., et al. (författare)
  • International Expert Consensus on Switching Platelet P2Y(12) Receptor-Inhibiting Therapies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 136:20, s. 1955-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y(12) inhibitor is the treatment of choice for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. The availability of different oral P2Y(12) inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) has enabled physicians to contemplate switching among therapies because of specific clinical scenarios. The recent introduction of an intravenous P2Y(12) inhibitor (cangrelor) further adds to the multitude of modalities and settings in which switching therapies may occur. In clinical practice, it is not uncommon to switch P2Y(12) inhibitor, and switching may be attributed to a variety of factors. However, concerns about the safety of switching between these agents have emerged. Practice guidelines have not fully elaborated on how to switch therapies, leaving clinicians with limited guidance on when and how to switch therapies when needed. This prompted the development of this expert consensus document by key leaders from North America and Europe with expertise in basic, translational, and clinical sciences in the field of antiplatelet therapy. This expert consensus provides an overview of the pharmacology of P2Y(12) inhibitors, different modalities and definitions of switching, and available literature and recommendations for switching between P2Y(12) inhibitors.
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3.
  • Bainey, Kevin R., et al. (författare)
  • Complete vs Culprit-Lesion-Only Revascularization for ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 5:8, s. 881-888
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Recently, the Complete vs Culprit-Only Revascularization to Treat Multi vessel Disease After Early PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) for STEMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [MI]) (COMPLETE) trial showed that angiography-guided PCI of the nonculprit lesion with the goal of complete revascularization reduced cardiovascular (CV) death or new MI compared with PCI of the culprit lesion only in STEMI. Whether complete revascularization also reduces CV mortality is uncertain. Moreover, whether the association of complete revascularization with hard clinical outcomes is consistent when fractional flow reserve (FFR)- and angiography-guided strategies are used is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis (1) whether complete revascularization is associated with decreased CV mortality and (2) whether heterogeneity in the association occurs when FFR- and angiography-guided PCI strategies for nonculprit lesions are performed. DATA SOURCES A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from database inception to September 30, 2019, was performed. Conference proceedings were also reviewed from January 1, 2002, to September 30, 2019. STUDY SELECTION English-language randomized clinical trials comparing complete revascularization vs culprit-lesion-only PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The combined odds ratio (OR) was calculated with the random-effects model using the Mantel-Haenszel method (sensitivity with fixed-effects model). Heterogeneity was measured using the I-2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using the inverted funnel plot approach. Data were analyzed from October 2019 to January 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cardiovascular death and the composite of CV death or new MI. RESULTS Ten randomized clinical trials involving 7030 unique patients were included. The weighted mean follow-up time was 29.5 months. Complete revascularization was associated with reduced CV death compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI (80 of 3191 [2.5%] vs 106 of 3406 [3]%1 OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.48-0.99]; P =.05; fixed-effects model OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-0.99]; P =.04). All-cause mortality occurred in 153 of 3426 patients (4.5%) in the complete revascularization group vs 177 of 3604 (4.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only group (OR, 0.84 [95% [I, 0.67-1.05]; P =.13; I-2 = 0%). Complete revascularization was associated with a reduced composite of CV death or new MI (192 of 2616 [7.3%] vs 266 of 2586 [10.3%]; OR, 0.69 [95% [I, 0.55-0.87]; P =.001; fixed-effects model OR, 0.69 [95% [I, 0.57-0.84]; P <.001), with no heterogeneity in this outcome when complete revascularization was performed using an FFR-guided strategy (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.43-1.44]) or an angiography-guided strategy (OR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.97]; P =.52 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization was associated with a reduction in CV mortality compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI. There was no differential association with treatment between FFR- and angiography-guided strategies on major CV outcomes.
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4.
  • Bikdeli, Behnood, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trials of Bivalirudin versus Heparin in Acute Myocardial Infarction : Rationale and Methodology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Schattauer GmbH. - 0340-6245. ; 120:2, s. 348-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of periprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results. Study-level meta-analyses lack granularity to adjust for confounders, explore heterogeneity, or identify subgroups that may particularly benefit or be harmed.Objective To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop an individual patient-data pooled database of RCTs comparing bivalirudin versus heparin.Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs in which ≥1,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus heparin.Results From 738 identified studies, 8 RCTs met the prespecified criteria. The principal investigators of each study agreed to provide patient-level data. The data were pooled and checked for accuracy against trial publications, with discrepancies addressed by consulting with the trialists. Consensus-based definitions were created to resolve differing antithrombotic, procedural, and outcome definitions. The project required 3.5 years to complete, and the final database includes 27,409 patients (13,346 randomized to bivalirudin and 14,063 randomized to heparin).Conclusion We have created a large individual patient database of bivalirudin versus heparin RCTs in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. This endeavor may help identify the optimal periprocedural anticoagulation regimen for patient groups with different relative risks of adverse ischemic versus bleeding events, including those with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation MI, radial versus femoral access, use of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion or glycoprotein inhibitors, and others. Adherence to standardized techniques and rigorous validation processes should increase confidence in the accuracy and robustness of the results..
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5.
  • Bueno, Hector, et al. (författare)
  • Report of the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table regulatory workshop update of the evaluation of new agents for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome : Executive summary
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care.. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2048-8726. ; 8:8, s. 745-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regulatory authorities interpret the results of randomized controlled trials according to published principles. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is planning a revision of the 2000 and 2003 guidance documents on clinical investigation of new medicinal products for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to achieve consistency with current knowledge in the field. This manuscript summarizes the key output from a collaborative workshop, organized by the Cardiovascular Round Table and the European Affairs Committee of the European Society of Cardiology, involving clinicians, academic researchers, trialists, European and US regulators, and pharmaceutical industry researchers. Specific questions in four key areas were selected as priorities for changes in regulatory guidance: patient selection, endpoints, methodologic issues and issues related to the research for novel agents. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) should be studied separately for therapies aimed at the specific pathophysiology of either condition, particularly for treatment of the acute phase, but can be studied together for other treatments, especially long-term therapy. Unstable angina patients should be excluded from acute phase ACS trials. In general, cardiovascular death and reinfarction are recommended for primary efficacy endpoints; other endpoints may be considered if specifically relevant for the therapy under study. New agents or interventions should be tested against a background of evidence-based therapy with expanded follow-up for safety assessment. In conclusion, new guidance documents for randomized controlled trials in ACS should consider changes regarding patient and endpoint selection and definitions, and trial designs. Specific requirements for the evaluation of novel pharmacological therapies need further clarification.
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6.
  • Capodanno, Davide, et al. (författare)
  • Dual-pathway inhibition for secondary and tertiary antithrombotic prevention in cardiovascular disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Reviews Cardiology. - 1759-5002 .- 1759-5010. ; 17:4, s. 242-257
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Advances in antiplatelet therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease have improved patient outcomes over time, but the challenge of balancing the risks of ischaemia and bleeding remains substantial. Moreover, many patients with cardiovascular disease have a residual risk of ischaemic events despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to prevent clinical events through mechanisms beyond platelet inhibition and with an acceptable associated risk of bleeding. The advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, which attenuate fibrin formation by selective inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin, has renewed the interest in dual-pathway inhibition strategies that combine an antiplatelet agent with an anticoagulant drug. In this Review, we highlight the emerging pharmacological rationale and clinical development of dual-pathway inhibition strategies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with different manifestations of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Many patients with cardiovascular disease have a residual risk of ischaemic events despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. In this Review, Angiolillo and colleagues discuss the pharmacological rationale and clinical development of dual-pathway inhibition strategies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with cardiovascular disease.
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7.
  • Capodanno, Davide, et al. (författare)
  • Trial Design Principles for Patients a High Bleeding Risk Undergoing PCI JACC Scientific Expert Panel
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 76:12, s. 1468-1483
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating the balance of risk for thrombotic and bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is especially relevant for patients at high bleeding risk (HBR). The Academic Research Consortium for HBR recently proposed a consensus definition in an effort to standardize the patient population included in HBR trials. The aim of this consensus-based document, the second initiative from the Academic Research Consortium for HBR, is to propose recommendations to guide the design of clinical trials of devices and drugs in HBR patients undergoing PCI. The authors discuss the designs of trials in HBR patients undergoing PCI and various aspects of trial design specific to HBR patients, including target populations, intervention and control groups, primary and secondary outcomes, and timing of endpoint reporting. (C) 2020 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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8.
  • Chau, Katherine H, et al. (författare)
  • Stent Thrombosis Risk Over Time on the Basis of Clinical Presentation and Platelet Reactivity: Analysis From ADAPT-DES.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. - 1876-7605.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the risk period for increased stent thrombosis (ST) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and whether this increased risk is related to high platelet reactivity (HPR).ST risk after PCI is higher among patients with ACS than those with stable ischemic heart disease. When ST risk is highest in patients with ACS and how that is affected by HPR is unknown.Using the ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents) registry, ST rates during 2-year follow-up post-PCI with drug-eluting stents were compared among patients presenting with ACS (myocardial infarction [MI] or unstable angina) or stable ischemic heart disease (non-ACS). Landmark analyses were done at 30 days and 1 year post-PCI. Platelet reactivity on aspirin and clopidogrel post-PCI was assessed using VerifyNow assays.Of 8,582 patients, 2,063 presented with MI, 2,370 with unstable angina, and 4,149 with non-ACS. Incidence rates of HPR were 48.0%, 43.3%, and 39.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Within the first 30 days post-PCI, patients presenting with MI had increased ST risk compared with patients with non-ACS (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01 to 10.14; p < 0.001). After 30 days, relative ST risks were progressively lower and no longer significant between groups (31 days to 1 year post-PCI: HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.80 to 4.85; >1 year post-PCI: HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.27 to 2.92). The elevated ST risk in patients with MI within 30 days was largely confined to those with HPR on clopidogrel (HR: 5.77; 95% CI: 2.13 to 15.63; p < 0.001).Among patients undergoing PCI, rates of ST during 2-year follow-up were highest in those with MI and lowest in those with non-ACS. Increased ST risk in patients with MI was greatest in the first 30 days post-PCI and was observed predominantly among those with increased HPR on clopidogrel. These findings emphasize the importance of adequate P2Y12 inhibition after MI, especially within the first 30 days after stent implantation.
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9.
  • Faggioni, Michaela, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Age (<75 Years Vs ≥75 Years) and Platelet Reactivity to the Risk of Thrombotic and Bleeding Events After Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug-Eluting Stents (from the ADAPT-DES Study).
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The American journal of cardiology. - 1879-1913. ; 125:5, s. 685-693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elderly patients may have increased platelet reactivity and adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention. Whether age is an independent predictor of worse outcomes after accounting for platelet reactivity is unknown. We sought to determine the relation between age and platelet reactivity on 2-year outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). ADAPT-DES was a prospective observational registry comprising 8,582 DES-treated patients. Patients were categorized with an age cutoff of 75 years. On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was evaluated with VerifyNow P2Y12 testing. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to describe the relation between increasing age and 2-year clinical outcomes. Patients ≥75 old were more likely to be women and had more cardiovascular risk factors and more extensive coronary artery disease than younger patients. Residual platelet reactivity on-clopidogrel increased slightly with age (adjusted r = 0.05, p <0.0001). Age ≥75 years was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.15, p <0.001), myocardial infarction (adjusted HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.74, p = 0.04) and clinically relevant bleeding (adjusted HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.61 p = 0.003). In contrast, the risk of stent thrombosis was independent of age (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.52, and p = 0.55). Considered as a continuous variable, age was directly related to clinically relevant bleeding, cardiac and all-cause mortality, was inversely related to stent thrombosis, and was not related to myocardial infarction. There was no significant interaction between age and on-treatment platelet reactivity for the risk of 2-year clinical outcomes. In conclusion, increasing age had a stronger association with the risk of death and bleeding than of thrombotic events. Despite being associated with older age, higher residual platelet reactivity did not modify the adjusted relative risks of ischemic and bleeding events associated with age.
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10.
  • Farhan, Serdar, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship between insulin resistance, coronary plaque, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: an analysis from the PROSPECT study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular diabetology. - 1475-2840. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated the association of insulin resistance (IR) with coronary plaque morphology and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients enrolled in the Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in Coronary Tree (PROSPECT) study.Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were divided based on DM status. Non-DM patients were further stratified according to homeostasis-model-assessment IR (HOMA-IR) index as insulin sensitive (IS; HOMA-IR ≤ 2), likely-IR (LIR; 2 < HOMA-IR < 5), or diabetic-IR (DIR; HOMA-IR ≥ 5). Coronary plaque characteristics were investigated by intravascular ultrasound. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE); a composite of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for unstable/progressive angina.Among non-diabetic patients, 109 patients (21.5%) were categorized as LIR, and 65 patients (12.8%) as DIR. Patients with DIR or DM had significantly higher rates of echolucent plaque compared with LIR and IS. In addition, DIR and DM were independently associated with increased risk of MACE compared with IS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.29, p = 0.01 and aHR 2.12, 95% CI 1.19-3.75, p = 0.009, respectively).IR is common among patients with ACS. DM and advanced but not early stages of IR are independently associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00180466.
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