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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Meiser A.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Meiser A.)

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1.
  • Mavaddat, Nasim, et al. (författare)
  • Polygenic Risk Scores for Prediction of Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Subtypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American journal of human genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 104:1, s. 21-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57–1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628–0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs. © 2018 The Authors
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  • Schofield, James P. R., et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of asthma phenotypes by airway proteomic signatures
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:1, s. 70-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Stratification by eosinophil and neutrophil counts increases our understanding of asthma and helps target therapy, but there is room for improvement in our accuracy in prediction of treatment responses and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Objective: We sought to identify molecular subphenotypes of asthma defined by proteomic signatures for improved stratification. Methods: Unbiased label-free quantitative mass spectrometry and topological data analysis were used to analyze the proteomes of sputum supernatants from 246 participants (206 asthmatic patients) as a novel means of asthma stratification. Microarray analysis of sputum cells provided transcriptomics data additionally to inform on underlying mechanisms. Results: Analysis of the sputum proteome resulted in 10 clusters (ie, proteotypes) based on similarity in proteomic features, representing discrete molecular subphenotypes of asthma. Overlaying granulocyte counts onto the 10 clusters as metadata further defined 3 of these as highly eosinophilic, 3 as highly neutrophilic, and 2 as highly atopic with relatively low granulocytic inflammation. For each of these 3 phenotypes, logistic regression analysis identified candidate protein biomarkers, and matched transcriptomic data pointed to differentially activated underlying mechanisms. Conclusion: This study provides further stratification of asthma currently classified based on quantification of granulocytic inflammation and provided additional insight into their underlying mechanisms, which could become targets for novel therapies.
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  • Östling, Jörgen, et al. (författare)
  • IL-17-high asthma with features of a psoriasis immunophenotype
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - Elsevier. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 144:5, s. 1198-1213
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The role of IL-17 immunity is well established in patients with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, but not in asthmatic patients, in whom further study is required.Objective: We sought to undertake a deep phenotyping study of asthmatic patients with upregulated IL-17 immunity.Methods: Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis was performed by using epithelial brushings, bronchial biopsy specimens (91 asthmatic patients and 46 healthy control subjects), and whole blood samples (n = 498) from the Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction of Respiratory Disease Outcomes (U-BIOPRED) cohort. Gene signatures induced in vitro by IL-17 and IL-13 in bronchial epithelial cells were used to identify patients with IL-17–high and IL-13–high asthma phenotypes.Results: Twenty-two of 91 patients were identified with IL-17, and 9 patients were identified with IL-13 gene signatures. The patients with IL-17–high asthma were characterized by risk of frequent exacerbations, airway (sputum and mucosal) neutrophilia, decreased lung microbiota diversity, and urinary biomarker evidence of activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway. In pathway analysis the differentially expressed genes in patients with IL-17-high asthma were shared with those reported as altered in psoriasis lesions and included genes regulating epithelial barrier function and defense mechanisms, such as IL1B, IL6, IL8, and β-defensin.Conclusion: The IL-17–high asthma phenotype, characterized by bronchial epithelial dysfunction and upregulated antimicrobial and inflammatory response, resembles the immunophenotype of psoriasis, including activation of the thromboxane B2 pathway, which should be considered a biomarker for this phenotype in further studies, including clinical trials targeting IL-17.
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  • Iyadurai, L., et al. (författare)
  • Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the emergency department : a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:3, s. 674-682
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After psychological trauma, recurrent intrusive visual memories may be distressing and disruptive. Preventive interventions post trauma are lacking. Here we test a behavioural intervention after real-life trauma derived from cognitive neuroscience. We hypothesized that intrusive memories would be significantly reduced in number by an intervention involving a computer game with high visuospatial demands (Tetris), via disrupting consolidation of sensory elements of trauma memory. The Tetris-based intervention (trauma memory reminder cue plus c. 20 min game play) vs attention-placebo control (written activity log for same duration) were both delivered in an emergency department within 6 h of a motor vehicle accident. The randomized controlled trial compared the impact on the number of intrusive trauma memories in the subsequent week (primary outcome). Results vindicated the efficacy of the Tetris-based intervention compared with the control condition: there were fewer intrusive memories overall, and time-series analyses showed that intrusion incidence declined more quickly. There were convergent findings on a measure of clinical post-trauma intrusion symptoms at 1 week, but not on other symptom clusters or at 1 month. Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that a larger trial, powered to detect differences at 1 month, is warranted. Participants found the intervention easy, helpful and minimally distressing. By translating emerging neuroscientific insights and experimental research into the real world, we offer a promising new low-intensity psychiatric intervention that could prevent debilitating intrusive memories following trauma.
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  • Di Simplicio, Martina, et al. (författare)
  • Imaginator : A Proof-of-Concept Feasibility Trial of a Brief Imagery-Based Psychological Intervention for Young People Who Self-Harm.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour. - 0363-0234 .- 1943-278X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The Imaginator study tested the feasibility of a short mental imagery-based psychological intervention for young people who self-harm and used a stepped-wedge design to investigate effects on self-harm frequency reduction at 3 and 6 months.METHOD: A total of 38 participants aged 16-25 were recruited via community self-referral and mental health services. Participants were randomized to immediate delivery of Functional Imagery Training (FIT) or usual care followed by delayed delivery after 3 months. FIT comprised two face-to-face sessions, five phone sessions, and use of a smartphone app. Outcomes' assessment was blind to allocation.RESULTS: Three quarters of those who began treatment completed face-to-face sessions, and 57% completed five or more sessions in total. Self-harm frequency data were obtained on 76% of the sample at 3 months (primary outcome) and 63% at 6 months. FIT produced moderate reductions in self-harm frequency at 3 months after immediate (d = 0.65) and delayed delivery (d = 0.75). The Immediate FIT group maintained improvements from 3 to 6 months (d = 0.05). Participants receiving usual care also reduced self-harm (d = 0.47).CONCLUSIONS: A brief mental imagery-based psychological intervention targeting self-harm in young people is feasible and may comprise a novel transdiagnostic treatment for self-harm.
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