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1.
  • Borne, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of blood cadmium and incidence of cardiovascular events in non-smokers: results from a population-based proteomics study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Proteomics. - : Humana Press. - 1542-6416. ; 16:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCadmium is a toxic metal with multiple adverse health effects, including risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanistic link between cadmium and CVD is unclear. Our aim was to examine the associations between blood cadmium (B-Cd) and 88 potential protein biomarkers of CVD.MethodsB-Cd and 88 plasma proteins were measured in a community-based prospective cohort, the Malmo Diet and Cancer study. The primary analysis was performed in never smokers (n=1725). Multiple linear regression was used with adjustments for age and sex, and correction for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate method. Proteins significantly associated with B-Cd were replicated in long-term former smokers (n=782). Significant proteins were then studied in relation to incidence of CVD (i.e., coronary events or ischemic stroke) in never smokers.ResultsFifteen proteins were associated with B-Cd in never smokers. Eight of them were replicated in long-term former smokers. Kidney injury molecule-1, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), tumor necrosis factor receptor-2, matrix metalloproteinase-12, cathepsin L1, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, C-C motif chemokine-3 (CCL3), and chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand-1 were associated with B-Cd both in never smokers and long-term former smokers. Except for CCL3 and FGF23, these proteins were also significantly associated with incidence of CVD.ConclusionsB-Cd in non-smokers was associated with eight potential plasma biomarkers of CVD and kidney injury. The results suggest pathways for the associations between B-Cd and CVD and kidney injury.
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2.
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic and drug target evaluation of 90 cardiovascular proteins in 30,931 individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature metabolism. - : Springer Nature. - 2522-5812. ; 2:10, s. 1135-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.
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3.
  • Fuchsberger, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 536:7614, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of common traits, including the number, frequency, and effect sizes of inherited variants that contribute to individual risk, has been long debated. Genome-wide association studies have identified scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes, but in aggregate, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of this disease. Here, to test the hypothesis that lower-frequency variants explain much of the remainder, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia performed whole-genome sequencing in 2,657 European individuals with and without diabetes, and exome sequencing in 12,940 individuals from five ancestry groups. To increase statistical power, we expanded the sample size via genotyping and imputation in a further 111,548 subjects. Variants associated with type 2 diabetes after sequencing were overwhelmingly common and most fell within regions previously identified by genome-wide association studies. Comprehensive enumeration of sequence variation is necessary to identify functional alleles that provide important clues to disease pathophysiology, but large-scale sequencing does not support the idea that lower-frequency variants have a major role in predisposition to type 2 diabetes.
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4.
  • Hindy, George, et al. (författare)
  • Role of Blood Lipids in the Development of Ischemic Stroke and its Subtypes : A Mendelian Randomization Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 49:4, s. 820-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Statin therapy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke supporting a causal role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, more evidence is needed to answer the question whether LDL cholesterol plays a causal role in ischemic stroke subtypes. In addition, it is unknown whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides have a causal relationship to ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Our aim was to investigate the causal role of LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in ischemic stroke and its subtypes through Mendelian randomization (MR).METHODS: Summary data on 185 genome-wide lipids-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were obtained from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium and the Stroke Genetics Network for their association with ischemic stroke (n=16 851 cases and 32 473 controls) and its subtypes, including large artery atherosclerosis (n=2410), small artery occlusion (n=3186), and cardioembolic (n=3427) stroke. Inverse-variance-weighted MR was used to obtain the causal estimates. Inverse-variance-weighted multivariable MR, MR-Egger, and sensitivity exclusion of pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms after Steiger filtering and MR-Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier test were used to adjust for pleiotropic bias.RESULTS: A 1-SD genetically elevated LDL cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio: 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.20) and large artery atherosclerosis stroke (odds ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.49) but not with small artery occlusion or cardioembolic stroke in multivariable MR. A 1-SD genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with a decreased risk of small artery occlusion stroke (odds ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.90) in multivariable MR. MR-Egger indicated no pleiotropic bias, and results did not markedly change after sensitivity exclusion of pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genetically elevated triglycerides did not associate with ischemic stroke or its subtypes.CONCLUSIONS: LDL cholesterol lowering is likely to prevent large artery atherosclerosis but may not prevent small artery occlusion nor cardioembolic strokes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol elevation may lead to benefits in small artery disease prevention. Finally, triglyceride lowering may not yield benefits in ischemic stroke and its subtypes.
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5.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Type 2 diabetes, glucose, insulin, BMI, and ischemic stroke subtypes : Mendelian randomization study
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 89:5, s. 454-460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To implement a mendelian randomization (MR) approach to determine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and body mass index (BMI) are causally associated with specific ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: MR estimates of the association between each possible risk factor and ischemic stroke subtypes were calculated with inverse-variance weighted (conventional) and weighted median approaches, and MR-Egger regression was used to explore pleiotropy. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) used as instrumental variables was 49 for T2D, 36 for fasting glucose, 18 for fasting insulin, and 77 for BMI. Genome-wide association study data of SNPstroke associations were derived from METASTROKE and the Stroke Genetics Network (n 5 18,476 ischemic stroke cases and 37,296 controls). Results: Conventional MR analysis showed associations between genetically predicted T2D and large artery stroke (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-1.40, p 5 3.3 3 1027) and small vessel stroke (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.33, p 5 8.9 3 1025) but not cardioembolic stroke (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.15, p 5 0.17). The association of T2D with large artery stroke but not small vessel stroke was consistent in a sensitivity analysis using the weighted median method, and there was no evidence of pleiotropy. Genetically predicted fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels and BMI were not statistically significantly associated with any ischemic stroke subtype.
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6.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • The plasma protein profile and cardiovascular risk differ between intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and the bulb : A meta-analysis and a longitudinal evaluation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 295, s. 25-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Genetic loci associated with CHD show different relationships with intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMT-CCA) and in the bulb (IMT-bulb). We evaluated if IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb differ also with respect to circulating protein profiles and risk of incident atherosclerotic disease.Methods: In three Swedish cohorts (MDC, IMPROVE, PIVUS, total n > 7000), IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb were assessed by ultrasound at baseline, and 86 cardiovascular-related proteins were analyzed. In the PIVUS study only, IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb were investigated in relation to incident atherosclerotic disease over 10 years of follow-up.Results: In a meta-analysis of the analysis performed separately in the cohorts, three proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), were associated with IMT-CCA when adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Five proteins were associated with IMT-bulb (MMP-12, growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), osteoprotegerin, growth hormone and renin). Following adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, IMT-bulb was significantly more closely related to incident stroke or myocardial infarction (total number of cases, 111) than IMT-CCA in the PIVUS study (HR 1.51 for 1 SD, 95%CI 1.21-1.87, p < 0.001 vs HR 1.17, 95%CI 0.93-1.47, p = 0.16). MMP-12 levels were related to this combined end-point (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.08-1.56, p = 0.0061).Conclusions: Elevated levels of MMP-12 were associated with both IMT-CCA and IMT-bulb, but other proteins were significantly related to IMT in only one of these locations. The finding that IMT-bulb was more closely related to incident atherosclerotic disease than IMT-CCA emphasizes a difference between these measurements of IMT.
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7.
  • Newton-Cheh, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 41:6, s. 666-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N <= 71,225 European ancestry, N <= 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 x 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 x 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 x 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 x 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 x 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 x 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 x 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 x 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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8.
  • Roselli, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Multi-ethnic genome-wide association study for atrial fibrillation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:9, s. 1225-1233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects more than 33 million individuals worldwide(1) and has a complex heritability(2). We conducted the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for AF to date, consisting of more than half a million individuals, including 65,446 with AF. In total, we identified 97 loci significantly associated with AF, including 67 that were novel in a combined-ancestry analysis, and 3 that were novel in a European-specific analysis. We sought to identify AF-associated genes at the GWAS loci by performing RNA-sequencing and expression quantitative trait locus analyses in 101 left atrial samples, the most relevant tissue for AF. We also performed transcriptome-wide analyses that identified 57 AF-associated genes, 42 of which overlap with GWAS loci. The identified loci implicate genes enriched within cardiac developmental, electrophysiological, contractile and structural pathways. These results extend our understanding of the biological pathways underlying AF and may facilitate the development of therapeutics for AF.
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9.
  • Rukh, G, et al. (författare)
  • Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 40:2, s. 252-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages.METHODS: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses.RESULTS: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10(-8)) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: -0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: -0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele.CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less weight gain during and after middle-age, in contrast to the expected increased weight gain seen in younger age.
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10.
  • Shungin, Dmitry, et al. (författare)
  • Using genetics to test the causal relationship of total adiposity and periodontitis : Mendelian randomization analyses in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 44:2, s. 638-650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The observational relationship between obesity and periodontitis is widely known, yet causal evidence is lacking. Our objective was to investigate causal associations between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI). Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses with BMI-associated loci combined in a genetic risk score (GRS) as the instrument for BMI. All analyses were conducted within the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium in 13 studies from Europe and the USA, including 49 066 participants with clinically assessed (seven studies, 42.1% of participants) and self-reported (six studies, 57.9% of participants) periodontitis and genotype data (17 672/31 394 with/without periodontitis); 68 761 participants with BMI and genotype data; and 57 871 participants (18 881/38 990 with/without periodontitis) with data on BMI and periodontitis. Results: In the observational meta-analysis of all participants, the pooled crude observational odds ratio (OR) for periodontitis was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.24] per standard deviation increase of BMI. Controlling for potential confounders attenuated this estimate (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12). For clinically assessed periodontitis, corresponding ORs were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.17), respectively. In the genetic association meta-analysis, the OR for periodontitis was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) per GRS unit (per one effect allele) in all participants and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.03) in participants with clinically assessed periodontitis. The instrumental variable meta-analysis of all participants yielded an OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.38) per BMI standard deviation, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.46) in participants with clinical data. Conclusions: Our study does not support total adiposity as a causal risk factor for periodontitis, as the point estimate is very close to the null in the causal inference analysis, with wide confidence intervals.
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