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1.
  • Kamper-Jörgensen, Mads, et al. (författare)
  • Survival after blood transfusion
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Transfusion. - 0041-1132 .- 1537-2995. ; 48:12, s. 2577-2584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-term survival of transfusion recipients has rarely been studied. This study examines short- and long-term mortality among transfusion recipients and reports these as absolute rates and rates relative to the general population. Population-based cohort study of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first registered transfusion. Three months after the first transfusion, 84.3 percent of recipients were alive. One-, 5-, and 20-year posttransfusion survival was 73.7, 53.4, and 27.0 percent, respectively. Survival was slightly poorer in men than in women, decreased with increasing age, and was worst for recipients transfused at departments of internal medicine. The first 3 months after the first transfusion, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 17.6 times higher in transfusion recipients than in the general population. One to 4 years after first transfusion, the SMR was 2.1 and even after 17 years the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions.
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4.
  • Schöllkopf, Claudia, et al. (författare)
  • Hepatitis C infection and risk of malignant lymphoma
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 122:8, s. 1885-1890
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and risk of malignant lymphoma remains controversial, perhaps due to small-sized studies and low prevalence of HCV in the general population. On the basis of a large Danish-Swedish population-based case-control study, 2,819 lymphoma patients and 1,856 controls of second-generation Danish-Swedish origin were screened for HCV infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a confirming recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) test. Positive samples were tested with real-time PCR for the presence of HCV RNA. The association between HCV infection and risk of malignant lymphoma was assessed by logistic regression. When intermediate RIBA test results were interpreted as positive, anti-HCV antibody positivity was associated with a nonsignificant increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-5.3; n = 20 cases), of B-cell lymphomas combined (OR = 2.4 [1.0-5.8]; n = 20) and of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (OR = 5.2 [1.0-26.4]; n = 2). No patients with T-cell or Hodgkin lymphoma were HCV-positive. A more conservative definition of HCV positivity (disregarding intermediate RIBA results) resulted in an OR = 1.6 (0.3-8.5; n = 5) for NHL overall. When the definition was further restricted to require HCV RNA positivity, OR was 1.7 (0.2-16.2; n = 3) for NHL overall. Our findings from a population with a low prevalence of HCV suggest a positive association between HCV and risk of NHL, in particular of B-cell origin.
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5.
  • Smedby, Karin Ekström, et al. (författare)
  • Ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of malignant lymphomas
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 97:3, s. 199-209
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant lymphomas has been increasing rapidly, but the causes of these malignancies remain poorly understood. One hypothesis holds that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases lymphoma risk. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden. METHODS: A total of 3740 patients diagnosed between October 1, 1999, and August 30, 2002, with incident malignant lymphomas, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma, and 3187 population controls provided detailed information on history of UV exposure and skin cancer and information on other possible risk factors for lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed consistent, statistically significant negative associations between various measures of UV light exposure and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A high frequency of sun bathing and sunburns at age 20 years and 5-10 years before the interview and sun vacations abroad were associated with 30%-40% reduced risks of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (e.g., for sunbathing four times a week or more at age 20 versus never sunbathing, OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9; for two or more sunburns a year at age 20 versus no sunburns, OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8). These inverse associations increased in strength with increasing levels of exposure (all P(trend)< or =.01). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed for Hodgkin lymphoma. There were no clear differences among non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, although associations were stronger for B-cell than for T-cell lymphomas. A history of skin cancer was associated with a doubling in risks of both non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: A history of high UV exposure was associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The positive association between skin cancer and malignant lymphomas is, therefore, unlikely to be mediated by UV exposure.
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6.
  • Ullum, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Transfusion. - 0041-1132 .- 1537-2995. ; 55:10, s. 2479-2485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Using the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly donors exempted from continued donation because of age criteria.RESULTS Statistical analyses included 1,182,495 donors of whom 15,401 died during 9,526,627 person-years of follow-up. Analyses adjusted only for demographic characteristics showed a 18.6% reduction in mortality per additional annual donation (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8%-20.4%). After additional adjustment for the internal healthy donor effect, each additional annual donation was associated with a 7.5% decreased mortality risk 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%).CONCLUSION We observed an inverse relationship between donation frequency and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.
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7.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus in relation to testicular-cancer risk : a nested case-control study
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 82:1, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An infectious etiology of testicular cancer has been suggested. We have evaluated seroreactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in relation to testicular-cancer risk in a case-control study, nested within a cohort of prospectively collected serum specimens from 293,692 individuals. For each of 81 cases of testicular cancer identified, 3 controls were randomly selected from the cohort. Serum IgG antibody titers against CMV and EBV were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunofluorescence methods. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained from conditional logistic-regression models. No association was found between CMV positivity and testicular cancer overall (OR = 1.08; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.94); risk for testicular seminoma was increased among CMV seropositive [OR = 1.70 (0.80-3.59)], whereas seropositivity was associated with decreased risk for testicular non-seminoma [OR = 0.54 (0.19-1.56)] (p for heterogeneity, 0.09). For EBV, the risk for testicular cancer was increased among individuals seropositive for viral capsid antigen (VCA) [OR = 2.74 (0.62-12.12)]. The results lend some support to the hypothesis of an infectious etiology, and we propose that future studies should take into account age at infection.
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8.
  • Akre, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal and gestational risk factors for hypospadias
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 116:8, s. 1071-1076
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. RESULTS: A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) 4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6-13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) > ;= 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6, 95% CI, 1.2-5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20-24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy's risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1-3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2-2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6, 95% CI, 1.1-53). CONCLUSIONS: A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias.
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9.
  • Baecklund, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive evaluation of the role of genetic variation in follicular lymphoma survival
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350 .- 1471-2350. ; 15, s. 113-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Survival in follicular lymphoma (FL) is highly variable, even within prognostic groups defined by tumor grade and the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index. Studies suggest that germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may hold prognostic information but further investigation is needed. Methods: We explored the association between SNPs and FL outcome using two approaches: 1) Two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of similar to 300.000 SNPs followed by a meta-analysis encompassing 586 FL patients diagnosed in Denmark/Sweden 1999-2002 and in the United States 2001-2006; and 2) Investigation of 22 candidate-gene variants previously associated with FL outcome in the Danish/Swedish cohort (N = 373). We estimated time to lymphoma-specific death (approach 1 and 2) and lymphoma progression (approach 2) with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a multivariable Cox regression model. Results: In the GWAS meta-analysis, using a random effects model, no variants were associated with lymphoma-specific death at a genome-wide significant level (p < 5.0x10(-8)). The strongest association was observed for tightly linked SNPs on 17q24 near the ABCA10 and ABCA6 genes (rs10491178 HRrandom = 3.17, 95% CI 2.09-4.79, prandom = 5.24x10(-8)). The ABCA10 and ABCA6 genes belong to a family of genes encoding for ABC transporter proteins, implicated in multidrug resistance. In line with a previous study, rs2466571 in CD46 (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.91, p = 0.006) showed nominal association with lymphoma progression, as did two highly linked SNPs in IL8 (rs4073 HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.97, p = 0.02; rs2227307 HR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.94, p = 0.01) previously associated with overall survival. Conclusions: The results suggest a possible role for multidrug resistance in FL survival and add to the evidence that genetic variation in CD46 and IL8 may have prognostic implications in FL. Our findings need further confirmation in other independent populations or in a larger multicenter GWAS.
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10.
  • Bernatsky, Sasha, et al. (författare)
  • Lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lupus Science and Medicine. - 2053-8790 .- 1625-9823. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL. Methods: GWAS data on European Caucasians from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) provided a total of 3857 DLBCL cases and 7666 general-population controls. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among the 28 SLE-related SNPs investigated, the two most convincingly associated with risk of DLBCL included the CD40 SLE risk allele rs4810485 on chromosome 20q13 (OR per risk allele=1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16, p=0.0134), and the HLA SLE risk allele rs1270942 on chromosome 6p21.33 (OR per risk allele=1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, p=0.0362). Of additional possible interest were rs2205960 and rs12537284. The rs2205960 SNP, related to a cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily TNFSF4, was associated with an OR per risk allele of 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.0549. The OR for the rs12537284 (chromosome 7q32, IRF5 gene) risk allele was 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18, p=0.0765. Conclusions: These data suggest several plausible genetic links between DLBCL and SLE.
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