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Sökning: WFRF:(Melkas S.)

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1.
  • Sachdev, P. S., et al. (författare)
  • STROKOG (stroke and cognition consortium): An international consortium to examine the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocognitive disorders in relation to cerebrovascular disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 7, s. 11-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction The Stroke and Cognition consortium (STROKOG) aims to facilitate a better understanding of the determinants of vascular contributions to cognitive disorders and help improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive disorders (VCD). Methods Longitudinal studies with ≥75 participants who had suffered or were at risk of stroke or TIA and which evaluated cognitive function were invited to join STROKOG. The consortium will facilitate projects investigating rates and patterns of cognitive decline, risk factors for VCD, and biomarkers of vascular dementia. Results Currently, STROKOG includes 25 (21 published) studies, with 12,092 participants from five continents. The duration of follow-up ranges from 3 months to 21 years. Discussion Although data harmonization will be a key challenge, STROKOG is in a unique position to reuse and combine international cohort data and fully explore patient level characteristics and outcomes. STROKOG could potentially transform our understanding of VCD and have a worldwide impact on promoting better vascular cognitive outcomes. © 2016 The Authors
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2.
  • Lo, J. W., et al. (författare)
  • Profile of and risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment in diverse ethnoregional groups
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878. ; 93:24, s. E2257-E2271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To address the variability in prevalence estimates and inconsistencies in potential risk factors for poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) using a standardized approach and individual participant data (IPD) from international cohorts in the Stroke and Cognition Consortium (STROKOG) consortium. Methods We harmonized data from 13 studies based in 8 countries. Neuropsychological test scores 2 to 6 months after stroke or TIA and appropriate normative data were used to calculate standardized cognitive domain scores. Domain-specific impairment was based on percentile cutoffs from normative groups, and associations between domain scores and risk factors were examined with 1-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results In a combined sample of 3,146 participants admitted to hospital for stroke (97%) or TIA (3%), 44% were impaired in global cognition and 30% to 35% were impaired in individual domains 2 to 6 months after the index event. Diabetes mellitus and a history of stroke were strongly associated with poorer cognitive function after covariate adjustments; hypertension, smoking, and atrial fibrillation had weaker domain-specific associations. While there were no significant differences in domain impairment among ethnoracial groups, some interethnic differences were found in the effects of risk factors on cognition. Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of PSCI in diverse populations, highlights common risk factors, in particular diabetes mellitus, and points to ethnoracial differences that warrant attention in the development of prevention strategies.
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3.
  • Jokinen, H., et al. (författare)
  • Global Burden of Small Vessel Disease-Related Brain Changes on MRI Predicts Cognitive and Functional Decline
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:1, s. 170-178
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose- Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by a wide range of focal and global brain changes. We used a magnetic resonance imaging segmentation tool to quantify multiple types of small vessel disease-related brain changes and examined their individual and combined predictive value on cognitive and functional abilities. Methods- Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 560 older individuals from LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study) were analyzed using automated atlas- and convolutional neural network-based segmentation methods yielding volumetric measures of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, chronic cortical infarcts, and global and regional brain atrophy. The subjects were followed up with annual neuropsychological examinations for 3 years and evaluation of instrumental activities of daily living for 7 years. Results- The strongest predictors of cognitive performance and functional outcome over time were the total volumes of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter, and hippocampi (P<0.001 for global cognitive function, processing speed, executive functions, and memory and P<0.001 for poor functional outcome). Volumes of lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cortical infarcts were significantly associated with part of the outcome measures, but their contribution was weaker. In a multivariable linear mixed model, volumes of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, gray matter, and hippocampi remained as independent predictors of cognitive impairment. A combined measure of these markers based on Z scores strongly predicted cognitive and functional outcomes (P<0.001) even above the contribution of the individual brain changes. Conclusions- Global burden of small vessel disease-related brain changes as quantified by an image segmentation tool is a powerful predictor of long-term cognitive decline and functional disability. A combined measure of white matter hyperintensities, lacunar, gray matter, and hippocampal volumes could be used as an imaging marker associated with vascular cognitive impairment.
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4.
  • Curtze, S, et al. (författare)
  • Symptomatic post-thrombolytic intracerebral hemorrhage is not related to the cause of stroke.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of neurology. - 1468-1331. ; 23:12, s. 1700-1704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The development of intracerebral hemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be influenced by various confounders related to the underlying vessel and tissue conditions. There are some data on association of cause of the stroke and the hemorrhage transformation. We tested the hypothesis that the cause of stroke is associated with the development of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) following IVT.A consecutive cohort of 2485 IVT-treated patients at the Helsinki University Central Hospital was classified according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. An sICH was classified according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II criteria. The associations of sICH with nominal, ordinal and continuous variables were analyzed in a univariate binary regression model and adjusted in multivariate binary regression models.In univariate analyses, cardioembolism [odds ratio (OR), 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.64] and large-artery atherosclerosis (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.85-2.00) were not associated with sICH, and small-vessel occlusion was associated with lower odds for sICH (OR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06-0.57). When adjusted for previously identified factors associated with sICH, none of the TOAST categories was associated with a higher or lower frequency of sICH.The development of sICH in IVT-treated patients is not related to the cause of stroke.
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5.
  • Curtze, S., et al. (författare)
  • White Matter Lesions Double the Risk of Post-Thrombolytic Intracerebral Hemorrhage
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499. ; 46:8, s. 2149-2155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs), a surrogate for small-vessel disease, are common in patients with stroke and may be related to an increased intracranial bleeding risk after intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to investigate the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) in the presence of WMLs in a large cohort of ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Methods-We included 2485 consecutive patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis at the Helsinki University Central Hospital. WMLs were scored according to 4 previously published computed tomography visual rating scales from all baseline head scans. A sICH was classified according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II criteria. The associations of sICH with nominal, ordinal, and continuous variables were analyzed in a univariate binary regression model and adjusted in multivariate binary regression models. Results-In univariate and multivariate regression analyses, all 4 tested visual WML rating scales (as continuous variables or dichotomized at different cutoff points) were associated with increased risk of sICH. In binary analyses, WML doubled the bleeding risk: the odds ratios of all 4 visual rating scales ranged from 2.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.30) to 2.70 (1.87-3.90) in univariable and from 2.00 (1.26-3.16) to 2.62 (1.71-4.02) in multivariable analyses. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for the association of high load of WMLs with remote parenchymal hemorrhage was 4.11 (2.38-7.10). Conclusions-WMLs visible on computed tomography are associated with a more than doubled risk of sICH in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.
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7.
  • Aarnio, K., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer in Young Adults With Ischemic Stroke
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499. ; 46:6, s. 1601-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. Methods-1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. Results-One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age >40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Conclusions-Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients.
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9.
  • Johansson-Pajala, Rose-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Knowledge Changes the Mindset : Older Adults’ Perceptions of Care Robots
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 11592. - : Springer Verlag. - 9783030220112 ; , s. 212-227
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper explores Finnish, German and Swedish older adults’ perceptions of a future welfare service with increased use of welfare technologies, specifically care robots. The issues are the rapid digitalization and development of health and welfare technology, which presently is mainly technology driven (not need or user driven), and the demographic challenge. The aim of the study was to explore older adults’ perception of the future use of welfare technology or care robots. A qualitative approach with focus group discussions was employed, followed by thematic analysis. The results are presented in four overall themes: the impact on daily life for older adults and professional caregivers, codes of practice and terms of use, dissemination of information and knowledge, and conditions for successful implementation. There were significant differences in the informants’ attitudes toward and knowledge about care robots. However, the informants’ attitudes appeared to change during the focus groups and in general, became more positive. Authentic needs, which care robots could support, refer to independence, safety and security, and the ability to manage or ease daily life or working life. The results suggest that older adults, after receiving relevant information, were open to the idea of being supported by care robots in their daily lives. 
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