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  • Almqvist, Erik G., et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing insulin sensitivity in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. - Informa Healthcare. - 1502-7686. ; 72:2, s. 92-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aims of this study were to investigate lipid and glucose metabolism in mild PHPT, and to identify whether insulin sensitivity correlates with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG, and osteocalcin before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Materials and methods. Forty-five patients with PHPT were examined before and 1 year after PTX. Circulating levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose, adiponectin, SHBG, osteocalcin, and erythropoietin were measured. Results. At baseline, the mean serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were above the upper reference limit or in the upper normal range, and insulin sensitivity was reduced as assessed using the HOMA index. One year after parathyroidectomy, serum lipids as well as HOMA index and erythropoietin were unchanged while adiponectin had increased (p < 0.05), and SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). HOMA index correlated negatively with circulating levels of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. In multiple regression analysis SHBG was the most important predictor of insulin sensitivity, both pre- and postoperatively. Conclusion. Untreated mild PHPT is associated with a moderate derangement of lipid and glucose metabolism. As previously shown in population-based cohorts, insulin sensitivity is positively associated with circulating concentrations of adiponectin, SHBG and osteocalcin. One year after PTX, the mean level of adiponectin was increased, but the levels of SHBG and osteocalcin had decreased and the levels of serum lipids and the insulin sensitivity remained unchanged as compared with baseline.
  • Bokrantz, Tove, et al. (författare)
  • Antihypertensive drug classes and the risk of hip fracture: results from the Swedish primary care cardiovascular database.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of hypertension. - 1473-5598. ; 38:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension and fractures related to osteoporosis are major public health problems that often coexist. This study examined the associations between exposure to different antihypertensive drug classes and the risk of hip fracture in hypertensive patients.We included 59 246 individuals, 50 years and older, diagnosed with hypertension during 2001-2008 in the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database. Patients were followed from 1 January 2006 (or the date of diagnosis of hypertension) until they had their first hip fracture, died, or reached the end of the study on 31 December 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the risk of hip fracture across types of antihypertensive medications, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, medications, and socioeconomic factors.In total, 2593 hip fractures occurred. Compared to nonusers, current use of bendroflumethiazide or hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.98 and hazard ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.96, respectively), as was use of fixed drug combinations containing a thiazide (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI 0.57-0.83). Current use of loop diuretics was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio 1.23; 95% CI 1.11-1.35). No significant associations were found between the risk of hip fracture and current exposure to beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone-receptor blockers or calcium channel blockers.In this large observational study of hypertensive patients, the risk of hip fracture differed across users of different antihypertensive drugs, results that could have practical implications when choosing antihypertensive drug therapy.
  • Carlzon, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Both Low and High Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Levels Associate with Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Men.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 99:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Most previous prospective studies suggest that low serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events whereas other studies suggest that high serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of CVD events. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that not only low, but also high serum IGF-1 levels associate with increased risk of CVD events in elderly men. Setting and Design: Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in 2901 elderly men (age 69-81 years) included in the Swedish cohort of the prospective, population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), Sweden cohort. Data for CVD events were obtained from national Swedish registers with no loss of followup. Results: During followup (median, 5.1 y) 589 participants experienced a CVD event. The association between serum IGF-1 and risk of CVD events was nonlinear, and restricted cubic spline Cox regression analysis revealed a U-shaped association between serum IGF-1 levels and CVD events (P < .01 for nonlinearity). Low as well as high serum IGF-1 (quintile 1 or 5 vs quintiles 2-4) significantly associated with increased risk for CVD events (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.02-1.54; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.10-1.66, respectively). These associations remained after adjustment for prevalent CVD and multiple risk factors. High serum IGF-1 associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events but not with risk of cerebrovascular events. Conclusions: Both low and high serum IGF-1 levels are risk markers for CVD events in elderly men. The association between high serum IGF-1 and CVD events is mainly driven by CHD events.
  • Coviello, Andrea D., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association meta-analysis of circulating sex hormone-binding globulin reveals multiple Loci implicated in sex steroid hormone regulation.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein responsible for the transport and biologic availability of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone and estradiol. SHBG has been associated with chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 21,791 individuals from 10 epidemiologic studies and validated these findings in 7,046 individuals in an additional six studies. We identified twelve genomic regions (SNPs) associated with circulating SHBG concentrations. Loci near the identified SNPs included SHBG (rs12150660, 17p13.1, p = 1.8x10(-106)), PRMT6 (rs17496332, 1p13.3, p=1.4x10(-11)), GCKR (rs780093, 2p23.3, p=2.2x10(-16)), ZBTB10 (rs440837, 8q21.13, p=3.4x10(-09)), JMJD1C (rs7910927, 10q21.3, p=6.1x10(-35)), SLCO1B1 (rs4149056, 12p12.1, p=1.9x10(-08)), NR2F2 (rs8023580, 15q26.2, p=8.3x10(-12)), ZNF652 (rs2411984, 17q21.32, p=3.5x10(-14)), TDGF3 (rs1573036, Xq22.3, p=4.1x10(-14)), LHCGR (rs10454142, 2p16.3, p=1.3x10(-07)), BAIAP2L1 (rs3779195, 7q21.3, p=2.7x10(-08)), and UGT2B15 (rs293428, 4q13.2, p=5.5x10(-06)). These genes encompass multiple biologic pathways, including hepatic function, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and T2D, androgen and estrogen receptor function, epigenetic effects, and the biology of sex steroid hormone-responsive cancers including breast and prostate cancer. We found evidence of sex-differentiated genetic influences on SHBG. In a sex-specific GWAS, the loci 4q13.2-UGT2B15 was significant in men only (men p = 2.5x10(-08), women p=0.66, heterogeneity p=0.003). Additionally, three loci showed strong sex-differentiated effects: 17p13.1-SHBG and Xq22.3-TDGF3 were stronger in men, whereas 8q21.12-ZBTB10 was stronger in women. Conditional analyses identified additional signals at the SHBG gene that together almost double the proportion of variance explained at the locus. Using an independent study of 1,129 individuals, all SNPs identified in the overall or sex-differentiated or conditional analyses explained similar to 15.6% and similar to 8.4% of the genetic variation of SHBG concentrations in men and women, respectively. The evidence for sex-differentiated effects and allelic heterogeneity highlight the importance of considering these features when estimating complex trait variance.
  • D'Elia, Helena Forsblad, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of hormone replacement therapy on disease progression and bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: The Journal of rheumatology. - 0315-162X. ; 30:7, s. 1456-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is known to exert a positive effect in preventing bone loss and a beneficial effect on the disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the effects of HRT on bone mineral density (BMD) and on the course of established RA. METHODS: Eighty-eight postmenopausal women with RA were randomly allocated to receive HRT, vitamin D3, and calcium supplementation or vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation alone for 2 years. The effects of additional HRT on laboratory and clinical measures of disease activity, quality of life, and BMD and on radiographic joint damage were investigated. RESULTS: Treatment with HRT suppressed signs of inflammation as shown by reduction in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p = 0.025) and an elevation in hemoglobin concentration (p = 0.007), a better clinical outcome assessed by response on the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28) (p = 0.036), increased BMD in the forearm, proximal femur and spine (p < 0.01), and retarded (p = 0.026) progression of joint destruction among patients with radiological progressive disease. No significant effect on quality of life was seen. CONCLUSION: Two years of HRT in women with active RA had significant ameliorating effects on inflammation, DAS28 response, and BMD and was associated with slower progression of radiological joint destruction. The mechanisms by which HRT exerts its effects remain to be elucidated. We suggest HRT can be used in addition to conventional therapy in the management of postmenopausal patients with RA.
  • Eriksson, Anna L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variations in sex steroid-related genes as predictors of serum estrogen levels in men.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 94:3, s. 1033-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: The risk of many conditions, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteoporosis, is associated with serum levels of sex steroids. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify genetic variations in sex steroid-related genes that are associated with serum levels of estradiol (E2) and/or testosterone in men. Design: Genotyping of 604 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 50 sex steroid-related candidate genes was performed in the Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study (n = 1041 men; age, 18.9 +/- 0.6 yr). Replications of significant associations were performed in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden study (n = 2568 men; age, 75.5 +/- 3.2 yr) and in the MrOS US study (n = 1922 men; age, 73.5 +/- 5.8 yr). Serum E2, testosterone, and estrone (E1) levels were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results: The screening in the GOOD cohort identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2470152 in intron 1 of the CYP19 gene, which codes for aromatase, responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of E2 and E1, to be most significantly associated with serum E2 levels (P = 2 x 10(-6)). This association was confirmed both in the MrOS Sweden study (P = 9 x 10(-7)) and in the MrOS US study (P = 1 x 10(-4)). When analyzed in all subjects (n = 5531), rs2470152 was clearly associated with both E2 (P = 2 x 10(-14)) and E1 (P = 8 x 10(-19)) levels. In addition, this polymorphism was modestly associated with lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.01) and prevalent self-reported fractures (P < 0.05). Conclusions: rs2470152 of the CYP19 gene is clearly associated with serum E2 and E1 levels in men. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94: 1033-1041, 2009)
  • Eriksson, Anna L, et al. (författare)
  • The COMT val158met polymorphism is associated with prevalent fractures in Swedish men.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bone. - 8756-3282. ; 42:1, s. 107-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Sex steroids are important for growth and maintenance of the skeleton. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an estrogen degrading enzyme. The COMT val158met polymorphism results in a 60-75% difference in enzyme activity between the val (high activity=H) and met (low activity=L) variants. We have previously reported that this polymorphism is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in young men. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between COMT val158met, BMD and fractures in elderly men. METHODS: Population-based study of Swedish men 75.4, SD 3.2, years of age. Fractures were reported using standardized questionnaires. Fracture and genotype data were available from 2822 individuals. RESULTS: Total number of individuals with self-reported fracture was 989 (35.0%). Prevalence of >/=1 fracture was 37.2% in COMT(LL), 35.7% in COMT(HL) and 30.4% in COMT(HH) (p<0.05). Early fractures (</=50 years of age) were less common in COMT(HH) than in the combined COMT(LL+HL) genotype, OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97). No associations were found for late fractures (>50 years of age). The OR for fracture of the non-weight bearing skeleton in COMT(HH) compared with COMT(LL+HL) was 0.74 (95% CI 0.59-0.92). No associations between COMT val158met and BMD were found in this cohort of elderly men. CONCLUSIONS: The COMT val158met polymorphism is associated with life time fracture prevalence in elderly Swedish men. This association is mainly driven by early fractures (</=50 years of age).
  • Eriksson, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • Limited Clinical Utility of a Genetic Risk Score for the Prediction of Fracture Risk in Elderly Subjects.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 1523-4681. ; 30:1, s. 184-194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is important to identify the patients at highest risk of fractures. A recent large-scale meta-analysis identified 63 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD), of which 16 were also associated with fracture risk. Based on these findings, two genetic risk scores (GRS63 and GRS16) were developed. Our aim was to determine the clinical usefulness of these GRSs for the prediction of BMD, BMD change, and fracture risk in elderly subjects. We studied two male (Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study [MrOS] US, MrOS Sweden) and one female (Study of Osteoporotic Fractures [SOF]) large prospective cohorts of older subjects, looking at BMD, BMD change, and radiographically and/or medically confirmed incident fractures (8067 subjects, 2185 incident nonvertebral or vertebral fractures). GRS63 was associated with BMD (3% of the variation explained) but not with BMD change. Both GRS63 and GRS16 were associated with fractures. After BMD adjustment, the effect sizes for these associations were substantially reduced. Similar results were found using an unweighted GRS63 and an unweighted GRS16 compared with those found using the corresponding weighted risk scores. Only minor improvements in C-statistics (AUC) for fractures were found when the GRSs were added to a base model (age, weight, and height), and no significant improvements in C-statistics were found when they were added to a model further adjusted for BMD. Net reclassification improvements with the addition of the GRSs to a base model were modest and substantially attenuated in BMD-adjusted models. GRS63 is associated with BMD, but not BMD change, suggesting that the genetic determinants of BMD differ from those of BMD change. When BMD is known, the clinical utility of the two GRSs for fracture prediction is limited in elderly subjects. (c) 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 x 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 x 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
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