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1.
  • Bartuma, Hammurabi, et al. (författare)
  • Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in lipoblastoma.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. - Elsevier. - 0165-4608. ; 183:1, s. 60-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumor that arises from embryonic adipose tissue and usually occurs in young children. Here, we present a review of available cytogenetic data and the karyotypes of 10 new cases of lipoblastoma, of which 7 could be studied further by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with regard to the involvement of the PLAG1 gene. All seven tumors with clonal aberrations harbored breakpoints in 8q11 approximately q13, in agreement with literature data. Including previously published cases, 33/40 (82%) lipoblastomas had rearrangement of the 8q11 approximately q13 region. These rearrangements target the PLAG1 gene, which becomes upregulated through promoter swapping. FISH revealed that five of seven cases in our series had a rearrangement of the PLAG1 gene. Occasionally, there can be difficulties in distinguishing a lipoblastoma from a conventional lipoma or a myxoid liposarcoma. As 8q11 approximately q13 rearrangements have been reported in only 3% of conventional lipomas and never in myxoid liposarcoma, cytogenetic analysis or FISH for the PLAG1 gene can provide useful differential diagnostic information.
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2.
  • Bartuma, Hammurabi, et al. (författare)
  • Fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes in a supernumerary ring chromosome in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. - Elsevier. - 0165-4608. ; 199:2, s. 143-146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare, low-grade malignant soft tissue tumor that is often mistaken for either benign or more malignant tumor types. Commonly, this tumor affects young adults and typically arises in the deep proximal extremities or trunk with frequent recurrences and can metastasize to the lungs many years later. Most cases have a recurrent balanced translocation involving chromosomes 7 and 16, t(7;16)(q32-34;p11), which leads to the fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 genes. However, supernumerary ring chromosomes have been identified in a subset of FUS/CREB3L2-positive LGFMS, but it has not yet been formally demonstrated that such ring chromosomes harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Here, we report the genetic findings of a supernumerary ring chromosome from an LGFMS from a 77-year-old man. Chromosome banding analysis revealed a supernumerary ring chromosome, and further studies with fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the ring contained material from chromosomes 7 and 16, that the FUS gene was present in two rearranged copies, and that it expressed the FUS/CREB3L2 fusion gene. Moreover, an assessment of previously reported cases showed that tumors with ring chromosomes relapsed more often than tumors with a balanced t(7;16), suggesting that ring formation in LGFMS is correlated with tumor progression.
3.
  • Brune, Jan Claas, et al. (författare)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells from primary osteosarcoma are non-malignant and strikingly similar to their bone marrow counterparts.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 129, s. 319-330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from a number of human tissues. In cancer, MSC have been implicated with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, drug resistance and were even suggested as possible tumor-initiating cells in osteosarcoma (OS). However, MSC from OS and their possible tumor origin have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, primary OS mesenchymal progenitors and OS-derived MSC were studied. OS samples contained very high frequencies of mesenchymal progenitor cells as measured by the CFU-F assay (median: 1,117 colonies per 10(5) cells, range: 133 - 3,000, n=6). This is considerably higher compared to other human tissues such as normal bone marrow (1.3 ± 0.2 colonies per 10(5) cells, n=8). OS-derived MSC (OS-MSC) showed normal MSC morphology and expressed the typical MSC surface marker profile (CD105/CD73/CD90/CD44/HLA-classI/CD166 positive, CD45/CD34/CD14/CD19/HLA-DR/CD31 negative). Furthermore, all OS-MSC samples could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage, and all but one sample into adipocytes and chondrocytes. Genetic analysis of OS-MSC as well as OS-derived spheres showed no tumor-related chromosomal aberrations. OS-MSC expression of markers related to tumor-associated fibroblasts (fibroblast surface protein, alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin) was comparable to bone marrow MSC and OS-MSC growth was considerably affected by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that normal, non-malignant mesenchymal stroma cells are isolated from OS when MSC culture techniques are applied. OS-MSC represent a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, and they share many properties with bone marrow-derived MSC. © 2010 UICC.
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4.
  • Gebre-Medhin, Samuel, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrent Rearrangement of the PHF1 Gene in Ossifying Fibromyxoid Tumors.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - American Society for Investigative Pathology. - 1525-2191. ; 181:3, s. 1069-1077
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is a soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Although most cases are histologically and clinically benign, some show malignant morphological features and local recurrences are not uncommon; a few may even metastasize. In the present study, cytogenetic analysis identified different structural rearrangements of chromosome band 6p21 in tumor cells from three cases of OFMT, including one with typical, one with atypical, and one with malignant morphological features. Mapping of the 6p21 breakpoint by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that the PHF1 gene was rearranged in all three cases. Further FISH, 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and RT-PCR analyses disclosed an EP400/PHF1 fusion transcript in one of the cases. Interphase FISH on tumor sections from 13 additional cases of OFMT showed rearrangement of the PHF1 locus in four of four typical, two of three atypical, and one of six malignant lesions. Thus, the PHF1 gene, previously shown to be the 3'-partner of fusion genes in endometrial stromal tumors, is also recurrently involved in the pathogenesis of OFMTs, irrespective of whether they are diagnosed as typical, atypical, or malignant lesions. The PHF1 protein interacts with the polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), which, in turn, regulates the expression of a variety of developmental genes. Thus, the results indicate that deregulation of PRC2 target genes is crucial for OFMT development.
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5.
  • Hallor, Karolin H, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic profiling of chondrosarcoma: chromosomal patterns in central and peripheral tumors.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 15:8, s. 2685-2694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Histologic grade is currently the best predictor of clinical course in chondrosarcoma patients. Grading suffers, however, from extensive interobserver variability and new objective markers are needed. Hence, we have investigated DNA copy numbers in chondrosarcomas with the purpose of identifying markers useful for prognosis and subclassification. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The overall pattern of genomic imbalances was assessed in a series of 67 chondrosarcomas using array comparative genomic hybridization. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the significance of alterations detected in subgroups based on clinical data, morphology, grade, tumor size, and karyotypic features. Also, the global gene expression profiles were obtained in a subset of the tumors. RESULTS: Genomic imbalances, in most tumors affecting large regions of the genome, were found in 90% of the cases. Several apparently distinctive aberrations affecting conventional central and peripheral tumors, respectively, were identified. Although rare, recurrent amplifications were found at 8q24.21-q24.22 and 11q22.1-q22.3, and homozygous deletions of loci previously implicated in chondrosarcoma development affected the CDKN2A, EXT1, and EXT2 genes. The chromosomal imbalances in two distinct groups of predominantly near-haploid and near-triploid tumors, respectively, support the notion that polyploidization of an initially hyperhaploid/hypodiploid cell population is a common mechanism of chondrosarcoma progression. Increasing patient age as well as tumor grade were associated with adverse outcome, but no copy number imbalance affected metastasis development or tumor-associated death. CONCLUSION: Despite similarities in the overall genomic patterns, the present findings suggest that some regions are specifically altered in conventional central and peripheral tumors, respectively.
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6.
  • Hansén Nord, Karolin, et al. (författare)
  • Frequent deletion of the CDKN2A locus in chordoma: analysis of chromosomal imbalances using array comparative genomic hybridisation.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 98:2, s. 434-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The initiating somatic genetic events in chordoma development have not yet been identified. Most cytogenetically investigated chordomas have displayed near-diploid or moderately hypodiploid karyotypes, with several numerical and structural rearrangements. However, no consistent structural chromosome aberration has been reported. This is the first array-based study characterising DNA copy number changes in chordoma. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) identified copy number alterations in all samples and imbalances affecting 5 or more out of the 21 investigated tumours were seen on all chromosomes. In general, deletions were more common than gains and no high-level amplification was found, supporting previous findings of primarily losses of large chromosomal regions as an important mechanism in chordoma development. Although small imbalances were commonly found, the vast majority of these were detected in single cases; no small deletion affecting all tumours could be discerned. However, the CDKN2A and CDKN2B loci in 9p21 were homo- or heterozygously lost in 70% of the tumours, a finding corroborated by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, suggesting that inactivation of these genes constitute an important step in chordoma development.British Journal of Cancer (2008) 98, 434-442. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604130 www.bjcancer.com Published online 11 December 2007.
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7.
  • Hansén Nord, Karolin, et al. (författare)
  • Integrative Genome and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Two Distinct Types of Ring Chromosome in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 23:4, s. 878-888
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene amplification is a common phenomenon in malignant neoplasms of all types. One mechanism behind increased gene copy number is the formation of ring chromosomes. Such structures are mitotically unstable and during tumor progression they accumulate material from many different parts of the genome. Hence, their content varies considerably between and within tumors. Partly due to this extensive variation, the genetic content of many ring-containing tumors remains poorly characterized. Ring chromosomes are particularly prevalent in specific subtypes of sarcoma. Here, we have combined fluorescence in situ hybridization, global genomic copy number and gene expression data on ring-containing soft tissue sarcomas and show that they harbor two fundamentally different types of ring chromosome: MDM2-positive and MDM2-negative rings. While the former are often found in an otherwise normal chromosome complement, the latter seem to arise in the context of general chromosomal instability. In line with this, sarcomas with MDM2-negative rings commonly show complete loss of either CDKN2A or RB1-both known to be important for genome integrity. Sarcomas with MDM2-positive rings instead show co-amplification of a variety of potential driver oncogenes. More than one hundred different genes were found to be involved, many of which are known to induce cell growth, promote proliferation or inhibit apoptosis. Several of the amplified and overexpressed genes constitute potential drug targets.
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8.
  • Hofvander, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Different patterns of clonal evolution among different sarcoma subtypes followed for up to 25 years
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare clonal evolution in tumors arising through different mechanisms, we selected three types of sarcoma—amplicon-driven well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS), gene fusion-driven myxoid liposarcoma (MLS), and sarcomas with complex genomes (CXS)—and assessed the dynamics of chromosome and nucleotide level mutations by cytogenetics, SNP array analysis and whole-exome sequencing. Here we show that the extensive single-cell variation in WDLS has minor impact on clonal key amplicons in chromosome 12. In addition, only a few of the single nucleotide variants in WDLS were present in more than one lesion, suggesting that such mutations are of little significance in tumor development. MLS displays few mutations other than the FUS-DDIT3 fusion, and the primary tumor is genetically sometimes much more complex than its relapses, whereas CXS in general shows a gradual increase of both nucleotide- and chromosome–level mutations, similar to what has been described in carcinomas.
9.
  • Hofvander, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Recurrent PRDM10 Gene Fusions in Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 21:4, s. 864-869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is defined as a sarcoma with cellular pleomorphism and no identifiable line of differentiation. It is typically a high-grade lesion with a metastatic rate of about 1/3. No tumor-specific rearrangement has been identified and genetic markers that could be used for treatment stratification are lacking. We performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to search for novel gene fusions. Experimental design: RNA-Seq, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and/or various PCR methodologies were used to search for gene fusions and rearrangements of the PRDM10 gene in 84 soft tissue sarcomas. Results: Using RNA-Seq, two cases of UPS were found to display novel gene fusions, both involving the transcription factor PRDM10 as the 3'-partner and either MED12 or CITED2 as the 5'-partner gene. Further screening of 82 soft tissue sarcomas for rearrangements of the PRDM10 locus, revealed one more UPS with a MED12/PRDM10 fusion. None of these genes has been implicated in neoplasia-associated gene fusions before. Conclusions: Our results suggest that PRDM10-fusions are present in around 5% of UPS. Although the fusion-positive cases in our series showed the same nuclear pleomorphism and lack of differentiation as other UPS, it is noteworthy that all three were morphologically low-grade and that none of the patients developed metastases. Thus, PRDM10 fusion-positive sarcomas may constitute a clinically important subset of UPS.
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10.
  • Hofvander, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • RNA sequencing of sarcomas with simple karyotypes: identification and enrichment of fusion transcripts.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Laboratory Investigation. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1530-0307. ; 95:6, s. 603-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene fusions are neoplasia-associated mutations arising from structural chromosomal rearrangements. They have a strong impact on tumor development and constitute important diagnostic markers. Malignant soft tissue tumors (sarcomas) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with >50 distinct subtypes, each of which is rare. In addition, there is considerable morphologic overlap between sarcomas and benign lesions. Several subtypes display distinct gene fusions, serving as excellent biomarkers. The development of methods for deep sequencing of the complete transcriptome (RNA-Seq) has substantially improved the possibilities for detecting gene fusions. With the aim of identifying new gene fusions of biological and clinical relevance, eight sarcomas with simple karyotypes, ie, only one or a few structural rearrangements, were subjected to massively parallel paired-end sequencing of mRNA. Three different algorithms were used to identify fusion transcripts from RNA-Seq data. Three novel (KIAA2026-NUDT11, CCBL1-ARL1, and AFF3-PHF1) and two previously known fusions (FUS-CREB3L2 and HAS2-PLAG1) were found and could be verified by other methods. These findings show that RNA-Seq is a powerful tool for detecting gene fusions in sarcomas but also suggest that it is advisable to use more than one algorithm to analyze the output data as only two of the confirmed fusions were reported by more than one of the gene fusion detection software programs. For all of the confirmed gene fusions, at least one of the genes mapped to a chromosome band implicated by the karyotype, suggesting that sarcomas with simple karyotypes constitute an excellent resource for identifying novel gene fusions.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 13 April 2015; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2015.50.
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