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Sökning: WFRF:(Mesmar F)

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1.
  • Jonsson, Philip, et al. (författare)
  • Single-Molecule Sequencing Reveals Estrogen-Regulated Clinically Relevant lncRNAs in Breast Cancer
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809 .- 1944-9917. ; 29:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)α-positive tumors are commonly treated with ERα antagonists or inhibitors of estrogen synthesis, but most tumors develop resistance, and we need to better understand the pathways that underlie the proliferative and tumorigenic role of this estrogen-activated transcription factor. We here present the first single-molecule sequencing of the estradiol-induced ERα transcriptome in the luminal A-type human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D. Sequencing libraries were prepared from the polyadenylated RNA fraction after 8 hours of estrogen or vehicle treatment. Single-molecule sequencing was carried out in biological and technical replicates and differentially expressed genes were defined and analyzed for enriched processes. Correlation analysis with clinical expression and survival were performed, and follow-up experiments carried out using time series, chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR. We uncovered that ERα in addition to regulating approximately 2000 protein-coding genes, also regulated up to 1000 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Most of these were up-regulated, and 178 lncRNAs were regulated in both cell lines. We demonstrate that Long Intergenic Non-protein Coding RNA 1016 (LINC01016) and LINC00160 are direct transcriptional targets of ERα, correlate with ERα expression in clinical samples, and show prognostic significance in relation to breast cancer survival. We show that silencing of LINC00160 results in reduced proliferation, demonstrating that lncRNA expression have functional consequences. Our findings suggest that ERα regulation of lncRNAs is clinically relevant and that their functions and potential use as biomarkers for endocrine response are important to explore.
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2.
  • Mesmar, Fahmi, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical candidate and genistein analogue AXP107-11 has chemoenhancing functions in pancreatic adenocarcinoma through G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cancer Medicine. - : WILEY. - 2045-7634 .- 2045-7634. ; 8:18, s. 7705-7719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite advances in cancer therapeutics, pancreatic cancer remains difficult to treat and often develops resistance to chemotherapies. We have evaluated a bioavailable genistein analogue, AXP107-11 which has completed phase Ib clinical trial, as an approach to sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapy. Using organotypic cultures of 14 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, we found that addition of AXP107-11 indeed sensitized 57% of cases to gemcitabine treatment. Results were validated using PDX models in vivo. Further, RNA-Seq from responsive and unresponsive tumors proposed a 41-gene treatment-predictive signature. Functional and molecular assays were performed in cell lines and demonstrated that the effect was synergistic. Transcriptome analysis indicated activation of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1) as the main underlying mechanism of action, which was corroborated using GPER1-selective agonists and antagonists. GPER1 expression in pancreatic tumors was indicative of survival, and our study proposes that activation of GPER1 may constitute a new avenue for pancreatic cancer therapeutics.
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3.
  • Nguyen-Vu, Trang, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen receptor beta reduces colon cancer metastasis through a novel miR-205-PROX1 mechanism
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - : IMPACT JOURNALS LLC. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 7:27, s. 42159-42171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Colon cancer is a common cause of cancer death in the Western world. Accumulating evidence supports a protective role of estrogen via estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) but the mechanism of action is not known. Here, we elucidate a molecular mechanism whereby ER beta represses the oncogenic prospero homebox 1 (PROX1) through the upregulation of miR-205. We show that PROX1 is a potential target of miR-205 and that in clinical specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas data, ER beta and miR-205 are decreased in colorectal cancer tissue compared to non-tumorous colon, while PROX1 levels are increased. Through mechanistic studies in multiple colorectal cancer cell lines, we show that ER beta upregulates miR-205, and that miR-205 targets and represses PROX1 through direct interaction with its 3' UTR. Through the generation of intestine-specific ER beta knockout mice, we establish that this pathway is correspondingly regulated in normal intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Functionally, we demonstrate that miR-205 decreases cell proliferation and decreases migratory and invasive potential of colon cancer cells, leading to a reduction of micrometastasis in vivo. In conclusion, ER beta in both normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells upregulates miRNA-205, which subsequently reduces PROX1 through direct interaction with its 3' UTR. This results in reduced proliferative and metastatic potential of the cells. Our study proposes a novel pathway that may be exploited using ER beta-selective agonists and/or miR-205-replacement therapy in order to improve preventive and therapeutic approaches against colon cancer.
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4.
  • Reins, Rose Y., et al. (författare)
  • Vitamin D Induces Global Gene Transcription in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells : Implications for Corneal Inflammation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. - 0146-0404 .- 1552-5783. ; 57:6, s. 2689-2698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE. Our previous studies show that human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) have a functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) and respond to vitamin D by dampening TLR-induced inflammation. Here, we further examined the timing of the cytokine response to combined vitamin D-TLR treatment and used genome-wide microarray analysis to examine the effect of vitamin D on corneal gene expression. METHODS. Telomerase-immortalized HCEC (hTCEpi) were stimulated with polyinosinicpolycytidylic acid (poly[I: C]) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (1,25D(3)) for 2 to 24 hours and interleukin (IL)-8 expression was examined by quantitative (q) PCR and ELISA. Telomeraseimmortalized HCEC and SV40-HCEC were treated with 1,25D(3) and used in genome-wide microarray analysis. Expression of target genes was validated using qPCR in both cell lines and primary HCEC. For confirmation of IjBa protein, hTCEpi were treated with 1,25D(3) for 24 hours and cell lysates used in an ELISA. RESULTS. Treatment with 1,25D(3) increased poly(I: C)-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein expression after 2 to 6 hours. However, when cells were pretreated with 1,25D(3) for 24 hours, 1,25D(3) decreased cytokine expression. For microarray analysis, 308 genes were differentially expressed by 1,25D(3) treatment in hTCEpi, and 69 genes in SV40s. Quantitative (q) PCR confirmed the vitamin D-mediated upregulation of target genes, including nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (I kappa B alpha). In addition to increased transcript levels, I kappa B alpha protein was increased by 28% following 24 hours of vitamin D treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Microarray analysis demonstrates that vitamin D regulates numerous genes in HCEC and influences TLR signaling through upregulation of I kappa B alpha. These findings are important in dissecting the role of vitamin D at the ocular surface and highlight the need for further research into the functions of vitamin D and its influence on corneal gene expression.
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5.
  • Simon, Marisa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide effects of MELK-inhibitor in triple-negative breast cancer cells indicate context-dependent response with p53 as a key determinant
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Plos. - 1932-6203. ; 12:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive, highly recurrent breast cancer subtype, affecting approximately one-fifth of all breast cancer patients. Subpopulations of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within the tumors are considered to contribute to disease recurrence. A potential druggable target for such cells is the maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK). MELK expression is upregulated in mammary stem cells and in undifferentiated cancers, where it correlates with poor prognosis and potentially mediates treatment resistance. Several MELK inhibitors have been developed, of which one, OTSSP167, is currently in clinical trials. In order to better understand how MELK and its inhibition influence TNBC, we verified its anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in claudin-low TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159 using MTS assays and/or trypan blue viability assays together with analysis of PARP cleavage. Then, using microarrays, we explored which genes were affected by OTSSP167. We demonstrate that different sets of genes are regulated in MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159, but in both cell lines genes involved in cell cycle, mitosis and protein metabolism and folding were regulated. We identified p53 (TP53) as a potential upstream regulator of the regulated genes. Using western blot we found that OTSSP167 downregulates mutant p53 in all tested TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, SUM-159, and BT-549), but upregulates wild-type p53 in the luminal A subtype MCF-7 cell line. We propose that OTSSP167 might have context-dependent or off-target effects, but that one consistent mechanism of action could involve the destabilization of mutant p53.
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