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Sökning: WFRF:(Michan J. M.)

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1.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of the 1S-2S transition in trapped antihydrogen
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 541:7638, s. 506-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics over the past 200 years. Historical examples of its importance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman and others, the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S-2S transition by Hansch1 to a precision of a few parts in 10(15). Recent technological advances have allowed us to focus on antihydrogen-the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen(2-4). The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today's Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates the study of antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal) theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S-2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen. We determine that the frequency of the transition, which is driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nanometres, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents the most precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of about 2 x 10(-10).</p>
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2.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of the fine structure of antihydrogen
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 578:7795, s. 375-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>At the historic Shelter Island Conference on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in 1947, Willis Lamb reported an unexpected feature in the fine structure of atomic hydrogen: a separation of the 2S(1/2) and 2P(1/2) states(1). The observation of this separation, now known as the Lamb shift, marked an important event in the evolution of modern physics, inspiring others to develop the theory of quantum electrodynamics(2-5). Quantum electrodynamics also describes antimatter, but it has only recently become possible to synthesize and trap atomic antimatter to probe its structure. Mirroring the historical development of quantum atomic physics in the twentieth century, modern measurements on anti-atoms represent a unique approach for testing quantum electrodynamics and the foundational symmetries of the standard model. Here we report measurements of the fine structure in the n = 2 states of antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of the hydrogen atom. Using optical excitation of the 1S-2P Lyman-alpha transitions in antihydrogen(6), we determine their frequencies in a magnetic field of 1 tesla to a precision of 16 parts per billion. Assuming the standard Zeeman and hyperfine interactions, we infer the zero-field fine-structure splitting (2P(1/2)-2P(3/2)) in antihydrogen. The resulting value is consistent with the predictions of quantum electrodynamics to a precision of 2 per cent. Using our previously measured value of the 1S-2S transition frequency(6,7), we find that the classic Lamb shift in antihydrogen (2S(1/2)-2P(1/2) splitting at zero field) is consistent with theory at a level of 11 per cent. Our observations represent an important step towards precision measurements of the fine structure and the Lamb shift in the antihydrogen spectrum as tests of the charge-parity-time symmetry(8) and towards the determination of other fundamental quantities, such as the antiproton charge radius(9,10), in this antimatter system. Precision measurements of the 1S-2P transition in antihydrogen that take into account the standard Zeeman and hyperfine effects confirm the predictions of quantum electrodynamics.</p>
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3.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of the 1S-2P Lyman-alpha transition in antihydrogen
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 561:7722, s. 211-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In 1906, Theodore Lyman discovered his eponymous series of transitions in the extreme-ultraviolet region of the atomic hydrogen spectrum(1,2). The patterns in the hydrogen spectrum helped to establish the emerging theory of quantum mechanics, which we now know governs the world at the atomic scale. Since then, studies involving the Lyman-alpha line-the 1S-2P transition at a wavelength of 121.6 nanometres-have played an important part in physics and astronomy, as one of the most fundamental atomic transitions in the Universe. For example, this transition has long been used by astronomers studying the intergalactic medium and testing cosmological models via the so-called 'Lyman-alpha forest('3) of absorption lines at different redshifts. Here we report the observation of the Lyman-alpha transition in the antihydrogen atom, the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. Using narrow-line-width, nanosecond-pulsed laser radiation, the 1S-2P transition was excited in magnetically trapped antihydrogen. The transition frequency at a field of 1.033 tesla was determined to be 2,466,051.7 +/- 0.12 gigahertz (1 sigma uncertainty) and agrees with the prediction for hydrogen to a precision of 5 x 10(-8). Comparisons of the properties of antihydrogen with those of its well-studied matter equivalent allow precision tests of fundamental symmetries between matter ;and antimatter. Alongside the ground-state hyperfine(4,5) and 1S-2S transitions(6,7) recently observed in antihydrogen, the Lyman-alpha transition will permit laser cooling of antihydrogen(8,9), thus providing a cold and dense sample of anti-atoms for precision spectroscopy and gravity measurements(10). In addition to the observation of this fundamental transition, this work represents both a decisive technological step towards laser cooling of antihydrogen, and the extension of antimatter spectroscopy to quantum states possessing orbital angular momentum.</p>
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4.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Antihydrogen accumulation for fundamental symmetry tests
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Antihydrogen, a positron bound to an antiproton, is the simplest anti-atom. Its structure and properties are expected to mirror those of the hydrogen atom. Prospects for precision comparisons of the two, as tests of fundamental symmetries, are driving a vibrant programme of research. In this regard, a limiting factor in most experiments is the availability of large numbers of cold ground state antihydrogen atoms. Here, we describe how an improved synthesis process results in a maximum rate of 10.5 +/- 0.6 atoms trapped and detected per cycle, corresponding to more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous work. Additionally, we demonstrate how detailed control of electron, positron and antiproton plasmas enables repeated formation and trapping of antihydrogen atoms, with the simultaneous retention of atoms produced in previous cycles. We report a record of 54 detected annihilation events from a single release of the trapped anti-atoms accumulated from five consecutive cycles.</p>
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5.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 548:7665, s. 66-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The observation of hyperfine structure in atomic hydrogen by Rabi and co-workers(1-3) and the measurement(4) of the zero-field ground-state splitting at the level of seven parts in 10(13) are important achievements of mid-twentieth-century physics. The work that led to these achievements also provided the first evidence for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron(5-8), inspired Schwinger's relativistic theory of quantum electrodynamics(9,10) and gave rise to the hydrogen maser(11), which is a critical component of modern navigation, geo-positioning and very-long-baseline interferometry systems. Research at the Antiproton Decelerator at CERN by the ALPHA collaboration extends these enquiries into the antimatter sector. Recently, tools have been developed that enable studies of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen(12)-the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. The goal of such studies is to search for any differences that might exist between this archetypal pair of atoms, and thereby to test the fundamental principles on which quantum field theory is constructed. Magnetic trapping of antihydrogen atoms(13,14) provides a means of studying them by combining electromagnetic interaction with detection techniques that are unique to antimatter(12,15). Here we report the results of a microwave spectroscopy experiment in which we probe the response of antihydrogen over a controlled range of frequencies. The data reveal clear and distinct signatures of two allowed transitions, from which we obtain a direct, magnetic-field-independent measurement of the hyperfine splitting. From a set of trials involving 194 detected atoms, we determine a splitting of 1,420.4 +/- 0.5 megahertz, consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen at the level of four parts in 10(4). This observation of the detailed behaviour of a quantum transition in an atom of antihydrogen exemplifies tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge-parity-time in antimatter, and the techniques developed here will enable more-precise such tests.</p>
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6.
  • Ahmadi, M., et al. (författare)
  • An improved limit on the charge of antihydrogen from stochastic acceleration
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 529:7586, s. 373-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Antimatter continues to intrigue physicists because of its apparent absence in the observable Universe. Current theory requires that matter and antimatter appeared in equal quantities after the Big Bang, but the Standard Model of particle physics offers no quantitative explanation for the apparent disappearance of half the Universe. It has recently become possible to study trapped atoms(1-4) of antihydrogen to search for possible, as yet unobserved, differences in the physical behaviour of matter and antimatter. Here we consider the charge neutrality of the antihydrogen atom. By applying stochastic acceleration to trapped antihydrogen atoms, we determine an experimental bound on the antihydrogen charge, Qe, of vertical bar Q vertical bar &lt; 0.71 parts per billion (one standard deviation), in which e is the elementary charge. This bound is a factor of 20 less than that determined from the best previous measurement(5) of the antihydrogen charge. The electrical charge of atoms and molecules of normal matter is known(6) to be no greater than about 10(-21)e for a diverse range of species including H-2, He and SF6. Charge-parity-time symmetry and quantum anomaly cancellation(7) demand that the charge of antihydrogen be similarly small. Thus, our measurement constitutes an improved limit and a test of fundamental aspects of the Standard Model. If we assume charge superposition and use the best measured value of the antiproton charge(8), then we can place a new limit on the positron charge anomaly (the relative difference between the positron and elementary charge) of about one part per billion (one standard deviation), a 25-fold reduction compared to the current best measurement(8),(9).</p>
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7.
  • Michan, C., et al. (författare)
  • Salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Debaryomyces hansenii and Debaryomyces fabryi
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: FEMS Yeast Research. - 1567-1356 .- 1567-1364. ; 13:2, s. 180-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the characterization of five strains belonging to the halotolerant highly related Debaryomyces hansenii/fabryi species. The analysis performed consisted in studying tolerance properties, membrane characteristics, and cation incell amounts. We have specifically investigated (1) tolerance to different chemicals, (2) tolerance to osmotic and salt stress, (3) tolerance and response to oxidative stress, (4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, (5) relative membrane potential, (6) cell volume, (7) K+ and Na+ ion content, and (8) membrane fluidity. Unexpectedly, no direct relationship was found between one particular strain, Na+ content and its tolerance to NaCl or between its ROS content and its tolerance to H2O2. Results show that, although in general, human origin D.fabryi strains were more resistant to oxidative stress and presented shorter doubling times and smaller cell volume than food isolated D.hansenii ones, strains belonging to the same species can be significantly different. Debaryomyces fabryi CBS1793 strain highlighted for its extremely tolerant behavior when exposed to the diverse stress factors studied.
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