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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Millikan Robert C.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Millikan Robert C.)

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1.
  • Haiman, Christopher A., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus is associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:12, s. 61-1210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer shows a higher incidence in women of African ancestry compared to women of European ancestry. In search of common risk alleles for ER-negative breast cancer, we combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from women of African ancestry (1,004 ER-negative cases and 2,745 controls) and European ancestry (1,718 ER-negative cases and 3,670 controls), with replication testing conducted in an additional 2,292 ER-negative cases and 16,901 controls of European ancestry. We identified a common risk variant for ER-negative breast cancer at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15 (rs10069690: per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 per allele, P = 1.0 x 10(-10)). The variant was also significantly associated with triple-negative (ER-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2)-negative) breast cancer (OR = 1.25, P = 1.1 x 10(-9)), particularly in younger women (<50 years of age) (OR = 1.48, P = 1.9 x 10(-9)). Our results identify a genetic locus associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer subtypes in multiple populations.
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2.
  • Siddiq, Afshan, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 21:24, s. 5373-5384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P 1 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR 1.16; P 1.1 10(8)) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR 1.08, P 1.3 10(6)) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR 1.01, P 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR 1.12; P 1.1 10(9)), and with both ER-positive (OR 1.09; P 1.5 10(5)) and ER-negative (OR 1.16, P 2.5 10(7)) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
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3.
  • Brennan, Donal J, et al. (författare)
  • Altered cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin is a prognostic indicator in breast cancer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 14:9, s. 2681-2689
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Survivin (BIRC5) is a promising tumor biomarker. Conflicting data exist on its prognostic effect in breast cancer. These data may at least be partly due to the manual interpretation of immunohistochemical staining, especially as survivin can be located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Quantitative determination of survivin expression using image analysis offers the opportunity to develop alternative scoring models for survivin immunohistochemistry. Here, we present such a model. Experimental Design: A breast cancer tissue microarray containing 102 tumors was stained with an anti-survivin antibody. Whole-slide scanning was used to capture high-resolution images. These images were analyzed using automated algorithms to quantify the staining. Results: Increased nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, survivin was associated with a reduced overall survival (OS; P = 0.038) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.0015). A high cytoplasmicto-nuclear ratio (CNR) of survivin was associated with improved OS (P = 0.005) and disease-specific survival (P = 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the survivin CNR was an independent predictor of CIS (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.76; P = 0.027). A survivin CNR of >5 correlated positively with estrogen receptor (P = 0.019) and progesterone receptor (P = 0.033) levels, whereas it was negatively associated with Ki-67 expression (P = 0.04), p53 status (P = 0.005), and c-myc amplification (P = 0.016). Conclusion: Different prognostic information is supplied by nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin in breast cancer. Nuclear survivin is a poor prognostic marker in breast cancer. Moreover, CNR of survivin, as determined by image analysis, is an independent prognostic factor.
4.
  • O'Brien, Sallyarm L., et al. (författare)
  • CENP-F expression is associated with poor prognosis and chromosomal instability in patients with primary breast cancer
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 120:7, s. 1434-1443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DNA microarrays have the potential to classify tumors according to their transcriptome. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the validation of biomarkers by offering a high-throughput approach to sample analysis. We reanalyzed a high profile breast cancer DNA microarray dataset containing 96 tumor samples using a powerful statistical approach, between group analyses. Among the genes we identified was centromere protein-F (CENP-F), a gene associated with poor prognosis. In a published follow-up breast cancer DNA microarray study, comprising 295 tumour samples, we found that CENP-F upregulation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p < 0.001) and reduced metastasis-free survival (p < 0.001). To validate and expand upon these findings, we used 2 independent breast cancer patient cohorts represented on TMAs. CENP-F protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 91 primary breast cancer samples from cohort I and 289 samples from cohort II. CENP-F correlated with markers of aggressive tumor behavior including ER negativity and high tumor grade. In cohort I, CENP-F was significantly associated with markers of CIN including cyclin E, increased telomerase activity, c-Myc amplification and aneuploidy. In cohort II CENP-F correlated with VEGFR2, phosphorylated Ets-2 and Ki67, and in multivariate analysis, was an independent predictor of worse breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.036) and overall survival (p = 0.040). In conclusion, we identified CENP-F as a biomarker associated with poor outcome in breast cancer and showed several novel associations of biological significance. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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5.
  • Brennan, Donal J., et al. (författare)
  • CA IX is an independent prognostic marker in premenopausal breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes and a putative marker of radiation resistance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432. ; 12:21, s. 6421-6431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Hypoxia in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis and down-regulation of the estrogen receptor. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-inducible gene that has been associated with poor outcome in many epithelial cancers. Previous studies of CA IX in breast cancer have been carried out on mixed cohorts of premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with locally advanced disease and varying treatment regimens. We examined the potential prognostic and predictive role of CA IX in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Experimental Design: Using tissue microarrays, we analyzed CA IX expression in 400 stage 11 breast cancers from premenopausal women. The patients had previously participated in a randomized control trial comparing 2 years of tamoxifen to no systemic adjuvant treatment. Median follow-up was 13.9 years. Results: CA IX expression correlated positively with tumor size, grade, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Ki-67, cyclin E, and cyclin A2 expression. CA IX expression correlated negatively with cyclin D1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. CA IX expression was associated with a reduced relapse-free survival (P = 0.032), overall survival (P = 0.022), and breast cancer specific survival (P = 0.005). Multivariate analysis revealed that CA IX was an independent prognostic marker in untreated patients with one to three positive lymph nodes (hazard ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-9.13; P = 0.027). Conclusion: CA IX is marker of poor prognosis in premenopausal breast cancer patients and it is an independent predictor of survival in patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. As all these patients received locoregional radiation therapy, CA IX may be associated with resistance to radiotherapy.
6.
  • Brennan, Donal J., et al. (författare)
  • Tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary premenopausal breast cancer predicts response to tamoxifen.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 13:1, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We previously reported an association between tumor-specific 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) expression and a good prognosis in breast cancer. Here, the predictive value of HMG-CoAR expression in relation to tamoxifen response was examined. METHODS: HMG-CoAR protein and RNA expression was analyzed in a cell line model of tamoxifen resistance using western blotting and PCR. HMG-CoAR mRNA expression was examined in 155 tamoxifen-treated breast tumors obtained from a previously published gene expression study (Cohort I). HMG-CoAR protein expression was examined in 422 stage II premenopausal breast cancer patients, who had previously participated in a randomized control trial comparing 2 years of tamoxifen with no systemic adjuvant treatment (Cohort II). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the effect of HMG-CoAR expression on tamoxifen response. RESULTS: HMG-CoAR protein and RNA expression were decreased in tamoxifen-resistant MCF7-LCC9 cells compared with their tamoxifen-sensitive parental cell line. HMG-CoAR mRNA expression was decreased in tumors that recurred following tamoxifen treatment (P < 0.001) and was an independent predictor of RFS in Cohort I (hazard ratio = 0.63, P = 0.009). In Cohort II, adjuvant tamoxifen increased RFS in HMG-CoAR-positive tumors (P = 0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that HMG-CoAR was an independent predictor of improved RFS in Cohort II (hazard ratio = 0.67, P = 0.010), and subset analysis revealed that this was maintained in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients (hazard ratio = 0.65, P = 0.029). Multivariate interaction analysis demonstrated a difference in tamoxifen efficacy relative to HMG-CoAR expression (P = 0.05). Analysis of tamoxifen response revealed that patients with ER-positive/HMG-CoAR tumors had a significant response to tamoxifen (P = 0.010) as well as patients with ER-positive or HMG-CoAR-positive tumors (P = 0.035). Stratification according to ER and HMG-CoAR status demonstrated that ER-positive/HMG-CoAR-positive tumors had an improved RFS compared with ER-positive/HMG-CoAR-negative tumors in the treatment arm (P = 0.033); this effect was lost in the control arm (P = 0.138), however, suggesting that HMG-CoAR predicts tamoxifen response. CONCLUSIONS: HMG-CoAR expression is a predictor of response to tamoxifen in both ER-positive and ER-negative disease. Premenopausal patients with tumors that express ER or HMG-CoAR respond to adjuvant tamoxifen.
7.
  • Brennan, Donal J., et al. (författare)
  • Tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary premenopausal breast cancer predicts response to tamoxifen
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - 1465-5411 .- 1465-542X. ; 13:1, s. R12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We previously reported an association between tumor-specific 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) expression and a good prognosis in breast cancer. Here, the predictive value of HMG-CoAR expression in relation to tamoxifen response was examined. Methods: HMG-CoAR protein and RNA expression was analyzed in a cell line model of tamoxifen resistance using western blotting and PCR. HMG-CoAR mRNA expression was examined in 155 tamoxifen-treated breast tumors obtained from a previously published gene expression study (Cohort I). HMG-CoAR protein expression was examined in 422 stage II premenopausal breast cancer patients, who had previously participated in a randomized control trial comparing 2 years of tamoxifen with no systemic adjuvant treatment (Cohort II). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and the effect of HMG-CoAR expression on tamoxifen response. Results: HMG-CoAR protein and RNA expression were decreased in tamoxifen-resistant MCF7-LCC9 cells compared with their tamoxifen-sensitive parental cell line. HMG-CoAR mRNA expression was decreased in tumors that recurred following tamoxifen treatment (P &lt; 0.001) and was an independent predictor of RFS in Cohort I (hazard ratio = 0.63, P = 0.009). In Cohort II, adjuvant tamoxifen increased RFS in HMG-CoAR-positive tumors (P = 0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that HMG-CoAR was an independent predictor of improved RFS in Cohort II (hazard ratio = 0.67, P = 0.010), and subset analysis revealed that this was maintained in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients (hazard ratio = 0.65, P = 0.029). Multivariate interaction analysis demonstrated a difference in tamoxifen efficacy relative to HMG-CoAR expression (P = 0.05). Analysis of tamoxifen response revealed that patients with ER-positive/HMG-CoAR tumors had a significant response to tamoxifen (P = 0.010) as well as patients with ER-positive or HMG-CoAR-positive tumors (P = 0.035). Stratification according to ER and HMG-CoAR status demonstrated that ER-positive/HMG-CoAR-positive tumors had an improved RFS compared with ER-positive/HMG-CoAR-negative tumors in the treatment arm (P = 0.033); this effect was lost in the control arm (P = 0.138), however, suggesting that HMG-CoAR predicts tamoxifen response. Conclusions: HMG CoAR expression is a predictor of response to tamoxifen in both ER-positive and ER-negative disease. Premenopausal patients with tumors that express ER or HMG-CoAR respond to adjuvant tamoxifen.
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8.
  • Lanigan, Fiona, et al. (författare)
  • Increased claudin-4 expression is associated with poor prognosis and high tumour grade in breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 124:9, s. 2088-2097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of intercellular tight junctions in breast epithelia[ cells is traditionaliy thought to be in maintaining polarity and barrier function. However, claudin-4, a tight junction protein, is overexpressed in breast tumour cells compared to normal epithelial cells, which generally corresponds to a loss in polarity. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and potential clinical value of claudin-4 in breast cancer, and to evaluate its usefulness as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. Expression of claudin-4 was initially examined by Western blot analysis in a cohort of 88 breast tumours, and was found to correlate positively with tumour grade and negatively with ER. Claudin-4 expression was then evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a larger cohort of 299 tumours represented on a tissue microarray. Claudin-4 expression correlated positively with tumour grade and Hcr2, and negatively with ER. High claudin-4 expression was also associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.0031), recurrence-free survival (P = 0.025) and overall survival (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis revealed that claudin-4 independently predicted survival in the entire cohort (HR 1.95; 95%CI 1.01-3.79; p = 0.047) and in the ER positive subgroup treated with adjuvant tamoxifen (FIR 4.34; 95%C1 1.14-16.53; p = 0.032). This relationship between increased claudin-4 expression and adverse outcome was validated at the mRNA level in a DNA microarray dataset of 295 breast tumours. We conclude that high levels of claudin-4 protein are associated with adverse outcome in breast cancer patients, including the subgroup of patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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9.
  • Ryan, Denise, et al. (författare)
  • Topoisomerase I Amplification in Melanoma is Associated with More Advanced Tumours and Poor Prognosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research. - 1755-148X. ; 23:4, s. 542-553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary In this study, we used array-comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to examine genetic aberrations in melanoma cell lines and tissues. aCGH revealed that the most frequent genetic changes found in melanoma cell lines were amplifications on chromosomes 7p and 20q, along with disruptions on Chr 9, 10, 11, 12, 22 and Y. Validation of the results using FISH on tissue microarrays (TMAs) identified TOP1 as being amplified in melanoma tissues. TOP1 amplification was detected in a high percentage (33%) of tumours and was associated with thicker, aggressive tumours. These results show that TOP1 amplification is associated with advanced tumours and poor prognosis in melanoma. These observations open the possibility that TOP1-targeted therapeutics may be of benefit in a particular subgroup of advanced stage melanoma patients.
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