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  • Andersson, Malin E., et al. (författare)
  • Kinesin gene variability may affect tau phosphorylation in early Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International journal of molecular medicine. - 1107-3756. ; 20:2, s. 233-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kinesin is a microtubule-associated motor protein that transports Alzheimer-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neurons. In animal models, impaired kinesin-mediated APP transport seems to enhance formation of the neurotoxic 42 amino acid fragment of beta-amyloid (A beta 42). In man, one study suggests that a polymorphism (rs8702, 56,836G > C) in the kinesin light chain 1 gene (KNS2) may affect the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further assess KNS2 as a susceptibility gene for AD we analyzed 802 patients with sporadic AD and 286 controls, 134 longitudinally followed patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 39 cognitively stable controls for the rs8702 polymorphism. The rs8702 polymorphism did not influence risk of AD (p=0.46). However, rs8702 interacted with APOE epsilon 4 carrier status in AD (p=0.006) and influenced cerebrospinal fluid levels of hyper-phosphorylated tau in MCI patients who converted to AD during follow-up (p=0.018). These findings support earlier indications that genetic variability in the KNS2 gene may play a role during early stages of AD pathogenesis.
  • Andreasen, N, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid tau and Abeta42 as predictors of development of Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 273:1, s. 5-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied CSF-tau and CSF-Abeta42 in 16 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who at follow-up investigations 6-27 months later had progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD) with dementia. For comparison, we studied 15 age-matched healthy individuals. At baseline, 14/16 (88%) of MCI patients had high CSF-tau and/or low CSF-Abeta42 levels. These findings show that these CSF-markers are abnormal before the onset of clinical dementia and that they may help to identify MCI patients that will develop AD. This is especially important when drugs with potential effects on the progression of AD will reach the clinical phase.
  • Andreasen, N, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of CSF-tau and CSF-Abeta42 as diagnostic markers for Alzheimer disease in clinical practice
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Archives of Neurology. - American Medical Association. - 0003-9942. ; 58:3, s. 373-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau and beta-amyloid protein ending at amino acid 42 (Abeta42) as biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) in clinical practice. DESIGN: A 1-year prospective study. SETTING: Community population-based sample of all consecutive patients admitted for investigation of cognitive symptoms to the Pitea River Valley Hospital, Pitea, Sweden. PATIENTS: A total of 241 patients with probable AD (n = 105), possible AD (n = 58), vascular dementia (n = 23), mild cognitive impairment (n = 20), Lewy body dementia (n = 9), other neurological disorders (n = 3), and psychiatric disorders (n = 5) and nondemented individuals (n = 18). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cerebrospinal fluid tau and CSF-Abeta42 were assayed each week as routine clinical neurochemical analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were defined using the regression line from 100 control subjects from a multicenter study. Positive and negative predictive values were calculated for different prevalence rates of AD. RESULTS: We found increased CSF-tau and decreased CSF-Abeta42 levels in probable and possible AD. Sensitivity was 94% for probable AD, 88% for possible AD, and 75% for mild cognitive impairment, whereas specificity was 100% for psychiatric disorders and 89% for nondemented. Specificity was lower in Lewy body dementia (67%) mainly because of low CSF-Abeta42 levels and in vascular dementia (48%) mainly because of high CSF-tau levels. Sensitivity for CSF-tau and CSF-Abeta42 increased in patients with AD possessing the ApoE epsilon4 allele, approaching 100%. At a prevalence of AD of 45%, the positive predictive value was 90% and the negative predictive value was 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrospinal fluid tau and CSF-Abeta42 have so far been studied in research settings, under conditions providing data on the optimal performance. We examined a prospective patient sample, with assays run in clinical routine, giving figures closer to the true performance of CSF-tau and CSF-Abeta42. The predictive value for AD was greater than 90%. Therefore, these biomarkers may have a role in the clinical workup of patients with cognitive impairment, especially to differentiate early AD from normal aging and psychiatric disorders.
  • Andreasen, N, et al. (författare)
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and stability of CSF-tau in AD in a community-based patient sample
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 53:7, s. 1488-1488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CSF-tau in clinical practice as a diagnostic marker for AD compared with normal aging and depression, to study the stability of CSF-tau in longitudinal samples, and to determine whether CSF-tau levels are influenced by different covariates such as gender, age, duration or severity of disease, or possession of the APOE-epsilon4 allele. METHODS: Consecutive AD patients from a community-based sample were studied, including 407 patients with AD (274 with probable AD and 133 with possible AD), 28 patients with depression, and 65 healthy elderly control subjects. A follow-up lumbar puncture was performed in 192 AD patients after approximately 1 year. CSF-tau was determined using a sandwich ELISA, which was run as a routine clinical neurochemical analysis. RESULTS: CSF-tau was increased in probable (690+/-341 pg/mL; p < 0.0001) and possible (661+/-447 pg/mL; p < 0.0001) AD, but not in depression (231+/-110 pg/mL) compared with control subjects (227+/-101 pg/mL). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that a cutoff level of 302 pg/mL resulted in a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI, 90-96%) and a specificity of 86% (95% CI, 75-94%), with an area under the curve of 0.95 to discriminate AD from control subjects. Within the AD group, CSF-tau did not differ significantly between baseline and follow-up investigations, and was relatively stable between baseline and 1-year follow-up levels, with a coefficient of variation of 21.0%. High CSF-tau levels were also found in most AD patients with very short duration of dementia, and with Mini-Mental State Examination scores >23 (n = 205). In total, 193 of 205 patients (sensitivity, 94%) had a CSF-tau level higher than 302 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: CSF-tau has a high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate AD from normal aging and depression, as demonstrated in a large community-based series of consecutive AD patients during which analyses were run continually in a clinical neurochemical laboratory. The increase in CSF-tau is found very early in the disease process in AD, is stable over time, and has a low interindividual variation on repeated sampling. Although high CSF-tau is found in some neurologic conditions (e.g., stroke), these findings suggest that CSF-tau may be of use to help in differentiating AD from normal aging and depression, especially early in the course of the disease, when the symptoms are vague and the diagnosis is especially difficult.
  • Ballard, Clive, et al. (författare)
  • alpha-synuclein antibodies recognize a protein present at lower levels in the CSF of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Psychogeriatrics. - Cambridge University Press. - 1741-203X. ; 22:2, s. 321-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) accounts for 15-20%, of the millions of people worldwide with dementia. Accurate diagnosis is essential to avoid harm and optimize clinical management. There is therefore an urgent need to identify reliable biomarkers. Methods: Mass spectrometry was used to determine the specificity of antibody alpha-synuclein (211) for alpha-synuclein. Using gel electrophoresis we measured protein levels detected by alpha-synuclein specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of DLB patients and compared them to age matched controls. Results: A 24 kDa band was detected using alpha-synuclein specific antibodies which was significantly reduced in the CSF of DLB patients compared to age matched controls (p < 0.05). Further analysis confirmed that even DLB patients with mild dementia showed significant reductions in this protein in comparison to controls. Conclusions: The current study emphasizes the necessity for further studies of CSF alpha-synuclein as a biomarker of DLB and extends our previous knowledge by establishing a potential relationship between alpha-synuclein and the severity of cognitive impairment. The identification of this 24 kDa protein is the next important step in these studies.
  • Bjerke, Maria, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Confounding factors influencing amyloid Beta concentration in cerebrospinal fluid.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International journal of Alzheimer's disease. - 2090-0252. ; 2010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Patients afflicted with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of the 42 amino acid form of beta-amyloid (Abeta(42)). However, a high discrepancy between different centers in measured Abeta(42) levels reduces the utility of this biomarker as a diagnostic tool and in monitoring the effect of disease modifying drugs. Preanalytical and analytical confounding factors were examined with respect to their effect on the measured Abeta(42) level. Methods. Aliquots of CSF samples were either treated differently prior to Abeta(42) measurement or analyzed using different commercially available xMAP or ELISA assays. Results. Confounding factors affecting CSF Abeta(42) levels were storage in different types of test tubes, dilution with detergent-containing buffer, plasma contamination, heat treatment, and the origin of the immunoassays used for quantification. Conclusion. In order to conduct multicenter studies, a standardized protocol to minimize preanalytical and analytical confounding factors is warranted.
  • Blennow, Kaj, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal stability of CSF biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS. - 0304-3940. ; 419:1, s. 18-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biomarker levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may serve as surrogate markers for treatment efficacy in clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs against Alzheimer's disease (AD). A prerequisite, however, is that the marker is sufficiently stable over time in individual patients. Here, we tested the stability of the three established CSF biomarkers for AD, total tau (T-tau), tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau(181)) and the 42 amino acid isoform of beta-amyloid (A beta 42), over 6 months in a cohort of AD patients on stable treatment with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Fifty-three patients completed the study, 29 men and 24 women, mean age (+/- S.D.) 76.1 +/- 7.9 years. Mean levels of CSF biomarkers were very stable between baseline and endpoint, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 4.4-6.1%. Intra-individual biomarker levels at baseline and endpoint were also highly correlated with Pearson r-values above 0.95 (p < 0.0001), for all three markers. We conclude that T-tau, P-tau and A beta 42 concentrations in CSF are remarkably stable over a 6-month period in individual AD patients. This suggest that these biomarkers may have a potential to identify and monitor very minor biochemical changes induced by treatment, and thus support their possible usefulness as surrogate markers in clinical trials with drug candidates with disease-modifying potential, such as secretase inhibitors, A beta immunotherapy and tau phosphorylation inhibitors. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bretillon, L, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with neurological diseases
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - Elsevier. - 0304-3940. ; 293:2, s. 87-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The brain is the exclusive or almost exclusive site of formation of 24S-hydroxycholesterol and we have shown that the circulating level of 24S-hydroxycholesterol is dependent upon the relation between cerebral production and hepatic clearance. In the present work we determined plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in patients with various neurological diseases. Eleven subjects with brain death occurring 6-10 h before collection of the plasma samples had markedly reduced circulating levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (-43%, P<0.001). Patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease and cerebral inflammatory diseases had slightly lower levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol in plasma when compared to matched controls. Patients with acute ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis and primary brain tumors had levels not significantly different from those of controls. The conditions leading to reduced plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol had no significant effect on plasma levels of another side-chain oxidized oxysterol, 27-hydroxycholesterol. Except for conditions characterized by very marked destruction of the central nervous system, different severe neurological diseases seem to have relatively small effects on the flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol from the brain.
  • Buchhave, Peder, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal study of CSF biomarkers in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 4:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The CSF biomarkers tau and Abeta42 can identify patients with AD, even during the preclinical stages. However, previous studies on longitudinal changes of tau and Abeta42 in individual patients with AD and elderly controls report somewhat inconsistent results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the levels of tau and Abeta42 at baseline and after 1 year in 100 patients with AD. In a second cohort of 45 AD patients we measured the CSF biomarkers at baseline and after 2 years. Moreover, in 34 healthy elderly controls the CSF biomarkers were followed for 4 years. The baseline levels of tau were increased with >60% in AD patients compared to controls (p<0.001), while baseline Abeta42 levels were decreased with >50% (p<0.001). In the AD group followed for 2 years, tau increased with 16% compared to the baseline levels (p<0.05). However, the levels of tau were stable over 4 years in the controls. The levels of Abeta42 did not change significantly over time in any of the groups. In the patients with AD, tau was moderately associated with worse cognitive performance already at baseline (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tau and Abeta42 in CSF seem to reflect the underlying disease state in both early and late stages of AD. The slight increase in tau over time observed in the patients with AD is modest when compared to the relatively large difference in absolute tau levels between AD patients and controls. Therefore, these markers maintain their usefulness as state markers over time and might serve as surrogate markers for treatment efficacy in clinical trials.
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